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PS-3.05: Science, technology, innovation policy and politics 4
10:30am - 12:00pm
Session Chair: João Marcos Hausmann Tavares, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro/RedeSist Discussant: Aschalew Demeke Tigabu, AfricaLics
Location:Emperor Room (Homann)
Participatory democratic governance critical for inclusive innovation: Introducing the PPACID model
Papia Sengupta Talukdar
Jawaharlal Nehru University, India
The last few years have seen an upsurge in the field of innovation studies especially ‘inclusive innovation’, aiming not only at economic but social development. In developing countries like India, inclusive innovation must incorporate governance and governance to be inclusive should encompass participation by all, especially the marginalized, to make public policies efficacious and delivering. The paper introduces PPACID a new model developed to facilitate inclusive innovation of the marginalized communities and groups often neglected in the process of governance. I argue that any model of inclusive innovation needs to take cognizance of participation by all stakeholders. Objective of innovations must be to enable and empower people at the periphery through awareness, accessibility and democratic deliberations rather than solely aiming at economic outcomes. Implementation of PPACID promotes the United Nation’s sustainable development goals (SDGs) by making governance participatory, expediting the process of social justice. Reaching SDGs must entail addressing the issue of injustice and democracy without which realization of SDGs remains an incomplete endeavour.
Are Neo-Schumpetarians Value Neutral?
Theo Papaioannou1, Smita Srinivas2
1The Open University, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom; 2Indian Institute for Human Settlements, India
Since the reconstruction of Joseph Schumpeter’s view of innovation as a driver of capitalist development and the subsequent formation of the national innovation systems (NIS) theory in the early 1990s that can be described as neo-Schumpeterian, there has been a continuous attempt to analyse innovation. However, much of this has positioned innovation as a value-neutral process. We argue that such value-neutrality requires closer analysis because the neo-Schumpeterian thinkers do appear to acknowledge that capitalism itself is an uneven, dynamic process. The relationship between the vital dynamism of such analysis of technological change and the context of its description of power relations and value deserves further attention. Under what conditions are systemic interactions between institutions and actors potentially universalisable? Can the theory of innovation be abstracted from its social and political bases? This paper aims to redefine innovation as a predominately political process that is both historical and contextual, and thus draw out its implications for development politics.
Knowledge Sourcing Strategies and Innovation Barriers across Manufacturing Firms in High- and Middle-Income Countries
Management Department, Faculty of Economics, Islamic University of Indonesia, United Kingdom
This study intends to identify and to compare the variation of knowledge sourcing strategies (KSS) employed by and innovation barriers faced by manufacturing firms in high-income (HI) and middle-income (MI) countries by using global innovation data derived from the UNESCO Institute of Statistics (UIS). Empirical findings of this study show that manufacturing firms in HI and MI income countries have different types and levels of KSS. Knowledge from internal R&D is sourced higher by manufacturing firms in HI countries than their counterparts in MI countries. While external knowledge from government or public research institutes; conference, trade fairs, and exhibitions; scientific journals and trade/technical publications are sourced higher by manufacturing firms in MI countries. This study also shows that manufacturing firms in MI countries face greater innovation barriers internally and externally than those in HI countries. Internally, manufacturing firms in MI countries face greater obstacles related to cost and findings and knowledge. Externally, the firms in MI countries faced greater constraints related to cost and funding; knowledge, market and other reason for not innovating than their counterparts in HI countries. Lastly, innovation policy implications are drawn from this study.