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PS-1.07: Intellectual property rights, innovation and development 1
2:00pm - 3:30pm
Session Chair: George Owusu Essegbey, Science and Technology Policy Research Institute
Location:Asia Afrika Room (Homann)
Dynamic Patent Licensing Strategies from the Perspective of Latecomer Firm
Yangao Xiao, Lu Lu, Jing Rao, Ya Zou
University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, China, People's Republic of
Based on the research of Lemly-Shapiro Model of patent holdup, this paper develops a modified patent holdup model between a foreign frontier firm (FFF) and a latecomer firm (LCF) by introducing technology gap and cost advantage, then discusses the dynamic influences of technology gap, cost advantage and both together. Correspondingly, this paper analyzes the strategies of LCF with the change of technology gap. The findings indicate that technology gap and cost advantage are internal variables of patent holdup between the FFF and the LCF besides injunction. Technology gap and cost advantage are directly proportional to patent holdup degree. At the initial stage of the technological catch-up, taking technology imitation strategy is better than taking prior approval policy due to the effect of technology gap and the cost advantage. And in the situation of technical imitation, the strategy of selecting optimal litigation is best for LCFs. When the technology gap reduces to some extent, it is better for the LCF to redesign the product or not to redesign but to choose litigation in order to reduce the degree of patent holdup.
Innovations in South Sahara Africa: determinants and effects on economic growth
Jacques Simon Song, / Tchouto
university of yaoundé II, Cameroon
This paper intend on the first hand, to assess the impact of institutional quality on the adoption of innovations, and on the other hand to assess the impact of innovations on economic growth in South Sahara Africa. For this purpose, a regression on cross section data of 37 countries for a time horizon covering the period 2006 to 2011 is used. Following the classification of economics institutions proposed by Rodrik (2005), we provide empirical evidence whose the results bring back three reports. At first, market legitimizing institutions, market regulatory institutions and market creating institutions matter in adopting process innovations. Then, market creating institutions and market legitimizing institutions matter in the adoption of product innovations in South SaharaAfrica. Finally, product innovations and process innovations are important in relative terms in the economic growth process. Similarly, the variables education and trade stimulate the economic growth.
Keywords:Economic growth, Economics institutions, product innovations, process innovations, South Sahara Africa.
Foreign Firms, Product Patent and Pharmaceuticals in India after TRIPS
Dinesh Abrol1, Sivakami Dhulap2, Nidhi Singh3
1Institute for Studies in Industrial Development, India; 2CSIR-URDIP, Pune; 3Jawaharlal Nehru University
This article examines the impact of delayed TRIPS implementation on 1) the introduction of new drugs by domestic and foreign firms and 2) the position of foreign firms and competition in the retail pharmaceutical market in India. Data on the impact for the purpose of evidence building is from a database created by the authors on the status of patents granted on new chemical entities (NCEs). We have verified from this data set the priority year of basic patents of all the new drugs and NCEs in the mail box after TRIPS implementation for which the foreign firms were granted products patents under the amended patent law in India. This study studies the changes taking place in the structure of Indian pharmaceutical market at the product level and looks at the participation of the multinational originator companies in the introduction of two hundred sixty eight (268) new drugs. It suggests that while the market power of foreign firms is on the rise but their market power would have been greater if India had opted for early TRIPS implementation like many of the countries in Latin America did. Further the looming threat of patent monopolies should not be underestimated by policymakers because in various therapeutic groups such as anti-cancer, cardiovascular, central nervous system, diabetes, urology and few more groups the share of patented compounds is fast increasing.