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The Role of Informal Waste Recycling on Livelihood and Health Outcome: A Case for Technological Innovation
Kehinde Oluwaseun Omotoso, Steve Koch
University of Pretoria, South Africa
In most developing countries, majority of the urban poor rely on informal waste recycling activities for their livelihood and survival. In line with the Sustainable Development Goals on poverty reduction and improved health outcomes, one of the major issues in informal waste recycling in developing countries is how best to describe the relationship between informal waste recycling activities and the twin goals of improving livelihood and health status.This study, therefore, explores the role of informal waste recycling activities on livelihood and health outcome in South Africa, using population-weighted General Household Surveys (GHS) covering years 2005-2014. Both parametric and non-parametric regression techniques were applied. The result shows evidence that informal waste recycling has a stronger positive relationship with livelihood. This implies that despite health challenges associated with informal recycling activity, it provides significant economic benefits to those involved in it. Therefore, integrating innovation and technology-based measures into informal waste recycling should be adopted in improving the efficiency and working conditions of those who rely on informal waste recycling for their livelihood.
Role Of The State And The Institutionalisation Of Alternative Medicinal System
Deepa V K, Abha Arya
Jawaharlal Nehru University, India
This paper tries to explore the debate of codified and non-codified (non-codifiable) knowledge in the context of alternative medicinal system. It would investigate the nature, limitations, participation and similarities of codification processes of tribal medicinal knowledge of Wayanad and Ayurveda medicinal system. This study would be an interesting intervention in this field because it opens the discourse of digitization and codification for the first time with the help of data collected from the healers of Wayanad district of Kerala; and some Ayurvedic firms and scientists (expertise in Ayurveda) in North India. It also intends to discuss the role of technology in the codification process and its impact on both the forms of medicinal system. In this backdrop, this paper investigates following research objectives: to analyse and compare the nature of codification in both the above mentioned fields; and limitations of the codification processes in terms of coverage and participation. It also assesses the similarities and differences in the access and use of these medicinal knowledge in the phase of post-codification.
The paper concludes with the following remarks: Codification process of the medicinal knowledge is a recent phenomenon. Even though there is a general belief that once the knowledge is detected it should be transferred between the people and codified for the future generations. But when every knowledge contains a part of tacit element in it, it is difficult to codify the entire knowledge. In this context, one can argue that, there should be human intervention even after the codification process. We cannot entirely depend upon technology in this matter (material access), but there should be also mental and skill access (human intervention) and it also should take care of the ‘digital divide’ part of it.
Competition for Rents and Structural Change in Commodity Chains: A Limited Access Order Approach
Vajk Miklos Lukacs de Pereny Martens1, Ronald Ramlogan2
1ESAN Graduate School of Business, Peru; 2Alliance Manchester Business School, University of Manchester, UK
This paper explores the impact of competition for rents on structural change in commodity chains. Through combination of the Global Value Chain (GVC) and Limited Access Order (LAO) frameworks, an Embedded Chain Framework (ECF) is developed and applied on a historical case study of the Peruvian alpaca fibre chain (AFC) to identify the institutional and organizational variables – political and economic - underpinning rent competition and structural change. Competitive processes and subsequent structural transformations are then identified and codified into the ECF. This information is summarized through descriptive statistics for the elaboration of three theoretical propositions which highlight the predominance of political over economic forms of competition in the AFC. Conclusions stress the operational attributes of the ECF but call for further validation of propositions through comparative case studies.