Challenges in Sanitation and Child Health in India: Need of Sustainable and Socially Responsible Innovation
Sanitation is imperative for health and wellbeing of the population. It is directly related with survival, development and growth of nation. Inadequate access to sanitation continued to be a key factor towards burden of preventable diseases among children in India. Research evidences confirm lack of sanitation and hygiene as a dominant and persistent cause of malnutrition among children under five in several developing countries. Immunization alone cannot sufficient to improve children health without considering the adequate sanitation. This paper systematically addresses the challenge that may responsible to fail existing innovation system and design a social responsible innovation framework that answers the identified structural and functional weakness that impedes the program outcomes and policy deficits. Building the infrastructure alone is not the solution of this multi-dimensional problem, a sustainable framework which turns around this rather preventable but neglected issue is required to bridge the gap between access to improved sanitation technology and child health. Sustainability in sanitation cannot be guaranteed only by inducing technology and engineering, nor is it only a matter of economical and sociological issue of concern. Understanding of complexity and magnitude of this situation, enhancing and mitigating gaps in policies and programs, technology, implementation strategy and overall monitoring mechanism along with an integrated socio-scientific approach is the key factor towards alleviation of this crisis. Existing policy for sanitation and child health is incompetent and need capacity building of human resources and proper coordination of all key and cross- sectoral actors. Researcher has not clearly established role of adequate sanitation in child health improvement and poverty reduction. Lack of involvement of society or community and end users as knowledgeable agents for transition toward sustainability may be the likely cause of failure in generating sanitation demand. Socially responsible innovation framework which deals with preventive measure to improve child health suggested an integrated approach where improved sanitation and child health which are mutually dependent elements are managed together may be helpful to bring desirable outcome.
Determinants of Participation and Choice of Institutions in Higher Education in India: A Directive for Institutional Innovation
Centre for Development Studies, India
The goal of equity, expansion and excellence in higher education in India is perfectly in keeping with the United Nation’s resolution on Sustainable Development goal (2015) which aims at, among other things, “a world with universal literacy, and equitable and universal access to quality education at all levels”. Institutional innovation in terms of education policies has been evolving ever since the independence of the country. The recent policy innovation of public-private partnership in higher education has led to an expansion of colleges including innovation universities, mostly in the private sector catering to professional/technical courses. However an analysis of the factors that influence the choice decisions of individual’s on participation in public, private aided or private unaided institutions should inform us on the nature and scope of institutional innovations in this sector.
This calls for a revisit into the determinants of participation in higher education in the light of labour market outcomes and a quest into the determinants of choice of higher education institutions, whether public or private. This paper uses the nationally representative National Sample Survey (NSS) data on Social Consumption: Education 2014, to analyse the factors that contribute to the individual’s choice of participation in higher education, in general, and the choice of participation in public, private aided or private unaided institutions, in particular. Using Logit model, and controlling for omitted variable bias, the study finds that labour market conditions have a significant influence on the participation decisions in higher education. Further, using multinomial logit model, the study finds that even when the socially and economically disadvantaged groups and females in general are less likely to participate in higher education, they show greater preference for public higher education institutions, reiterating the role of government in ensuring equity though innovation at the policy level to establish inclusive institutions to enhance access to higher education for the marginalized and vulnerable groups.
Research and Innovation in South African Universities
1Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa; 2Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa
This study maps the research and innovation in South African universities within the triple-helix framework. To map the R&D activities of South African universities, patent and publications data are used as output indicators. The study observed that universities are the most prolific publisher and constitute about 91 percent of total South African publications. However, universities altogether produce only about14 percent of total South African patents. Productivity is mainly concentrated in Western Cape and Gauteng provinces because of the location of public research institutes and productive universities. For example University of Pretoria and University of the Witwatersrand in Gauteng and University of Cape Town and Stellenbosch University in Western Cape Provinces are the productive universities. Above all, only a few universities are responsible for both patenting and publication portfolio of South Africa. The joint patent trends shows that only about 19 percent patents are collaborative patents. South African public research institutes are more active in joint patents with universities followed by the foreign universities. South African firms are less active in collaborative patents. The study recommends that collaboration between universities and local firms need to be strengthened to develop technological capabilities in South Africa. Also, the regional disparities in productivity need further attention. To achieve the ‘entrepreneurial university’ in terms of patents and technology transfer South African universities need to collaborate more with the local industries or institutes. Further studies will perhaps give a clear picture of technology transfer and the universities incurred benefits from it.
Effect of Social Groups on Maize Farmers’ Profitability and Adoption of Innovation in Kwara State, Nigeria
UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, Nigeria
There is an increasing awareness of social groups as cost saving and effective mechanisms for the dissemination of innovation among small-scale farmers by international donor agencies as well as by local agricultural extension practitioners in Nigeria. This fact reiterates the need for empirical studies on the impact of membership of social groups on farmers’ livelihood and also on ways to maximize the potentials of such groups as catalyst for the adoption of agricultural innovation. This study therefore accessed the impact of membership of social groups on farmers’ profitability. It also investigated the determinants of adoption of innovation among members of social groups. A two stage sampling procedure was used to select 125 respondents on which a well structured questionnaire was administered. Descriptive statistics, Social Network Analysis, Gross Margin Analysis and Logistic Regression Analysis were used to analyze the data collected. The result revealed that the Gross Margin of maize farmers who were members of social groups was 18.3% higher than those of non-members. Age of the farmers (3.11), level of education (15.93), farm size (2.27), gender (5.09), main source of information (25.35) and level of social networking (7.83), explained 64.6% of the variation in adoption of innovation at (p<1.0). The study concluded that membership of social groups increased profitability among maize farmers. In addition, adoption of innovation increased with age of the farmers, level of education, farm size, and level of networking among members of social groups. The study therefore recommends that maize farmers in the study area should be encouraged to take up membership of social groups while existing social groups should be strengthened. Capacity building of the farmers in networking as well as increased adult literacy campaign is also recommended.
Is Higher Education becoming desirable to Business Enterprises for R&D purpose? Trends and Lessons from OECD Countries
1National Institute of Public Finance and Policy, India; 2University of Delhi, India
This paper examines the trends in share of Higher Education in total Intra-mural R&D expenditure by Business Enterprises in OECD countries over the period 1981-2013. As regard to why OECD countries are in focus, we observed that historically, the OECD countries have the highest share in total world Intra-mural R&D expenditure and in World GDP. Hence, it makes sense to observe the tendencies of Business Enterprises in OECD countries so as to have an informed projection regarding behaviour of Business Enterprises in developing countries. This also offers the policymakers in developing countries a new ground to reflect on the linkages between Higher Education and Business Enterprises and decision about affecting it. If one understands as to why in some OECD countries Higher Education became desirable to Business Enterprises for R&D purposes and not in others and finds its basis in policy and institutional paradigm, we can use those insights to choose to design the course of public policy and institutions in developing countries.
Health Innovation System in Rio Grande do Sul / Brazil: an analysis from the interactions carried out by the research groups, the university hospitals and the manufacturing industry
1Federal University of Uberlândia, MG, Brazil; 2Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, RS, Brazil; 3University of Rio dos Sinos, RS, Brazil
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the networks originated from interactions among agents - like firms, research groups and hospitals – in the Health Innovation System in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The theoretical standpoint is the innovation system approach. This study was based on a literature review and a collection of secondary and primary data. It is characterized for being an empirical study of exploratory nature. Primary data was collected through questionnaires and face-to-face interviews. Secondary data from the National Research Council were analyzed. For the latest Census of Research Groups of the Directory available (2010) were built networks. When analyzing the sources of knowledge for innovation from different perspectives, the research groups, service providers (hospitals) and the industry, strengths and weaknesses of the regional innovation system have been revealed. We conclude that, in addition to increasing the scientific production, it is important to improve the productive sector’s use of the knowledge generated in the scientific sector. As the field research has shown, there is a great opportunity to make the interplay between universities and companies stronger. Furthermore, a general conclusion is that hospitals play an important role in this system. Even though the existing interactions between hospitals and research groups/companies are rather tenuous, it is understood that such service providers can be an important innovation space, especially in obtaining positive impacts relating to healthcare.
Innovative Activities Of Small Firms In Four Clusters Of A Developing Country
1METI, UNIVERSITY OF PORT HARCOURT, NIGERIA; 2GRADUATE SCHOOL OF TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT, UNIVERSITY OF PRETORIA, SOUTH AFRICA
Industry clusters are acclaimed as strategic enablers of creativity, inclusiveness and innovation towards economic, social and sustainable development of nation states. Among the various actors found in a cluster are small and medium scale enterprises, whose innovative activities tend to enhance production capabilities, build competences and stimulate adoption of new technologies. This paper examines the nature of creativity and inclusiveness in cluster development through the innovative activities of small and medium scale enterprises. Whereas published literature highlights the influence of policy on cluster development, however, structured interviews of various actors indicate how innovative activities of small and medium scale enterprises compare within four clusters in a case study country.
Is there a scientific community in Nepal? Challenges of Negotiating Science, Technology and Innovation Policy for building Innovation System
Centre for Studies in Science Policy, Jawaharlal Nehru University, India
Science and technical progress leading to innovation plays a crucial role in the economic growth and sustainable development of any nation-states. Innovation system (IS) as a concept has emerged from industrially advanced nations to study dynamics of innovation at different levels. The study of relationship between science, technology and innovation is an integral part of national innovation system (NIS) framework. In Asia and the Pacific, UNESCO recognizes 15 countries in the category of Least Developing Countries (LDCs), due to low level of education and S&T development, inadequate infrastructure, difficulty to enhance capabilities to promote trade and inclusive growth and vicious cycle of international donors’ dependency etc. Out of 15 LDCs 4 are in South Asia including Nepal . The paper argues from the case study of Nepal for larger understanding of ‘scientific community’ that constitute universities, R&D institutions and professional, among others, as a necessary condition for building NIS. However, while doing so, there are huge challenges to enlarge the NIS framework from narrow understanding to broaden its perspective in Nepal’s context. Through the study of scientific community in Nepal, from a formal narrow approach, the paper unpack the challenges of STI policies within the socio-economic-political dynamics and argues for making a transition towards broader perspective of IS where learning and interaction can take place between actors for economic development.
Emerging stem cell innovation system in India: A case study of cardiovascular repair
Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India
Abstract: The present paper is an attempt to explore the emerging stem cell innovation system in India with a particular focus on cardiovascular diseases. The study explores the various actors and institutions involve in this sectors and role played by them from innovation system perspective. The study also analysed the laws and guidelines affecting the functioning of stem cell sector in the country. Based on the data from the primary survey, the study tried to map the emerging scenario of the stem cell innovation system in the country and also identified the drivers and barriers in the growth and commercialization of stem cell therapy. An attempt is also made to find out extent and motives of collaboration in the field. The study used both qualitative as well as quantitative methods and results are based in the analysis of interviews with the experts, scientometric data, clinical trials data, policy documents, primary and secondary literature, etc. This study identified that stem cell innovation system in India is driven by the burden of chronic diseases in the country and largely supported by the government to make new affordable treatments for their domestic health needs.
Co-evolution of Technological Capabilities and Regulation in Indonesian Herbal Medicine
Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Indonesia
This paper is aimed to analyze the co-evolution process between technological capabilities of herbal companies and regulation in terms of standard and product quality. Technological capabilities of herbal companies has evolved since the market changed and the regulation imposed in this industry. By using multiple case studies, this research focuses on five herbal companies and five pharmaceutical companies in which all of the companies have produced one or more herbal products, such as traditional herbal medicines (jamu), standardized herbal medicines, and phytopharmaca (clinical herbal medicines). The sort of regulation related to quality, efficacy, and safety of herbal products generates a lot of changes in technological capabilities experienced by herbal companies. However, there is a different technological capabilities acknowledged between herbal companies and pharmaceutical companies in driving the herbal product orientation. This study provides two contributions. First, by looking at the relationship or interaction between regulation and technological capabilities in the new context, the findings of this study provide new evidence that enforcement of regulations regarding the improvement of the quality of herbal medicines do not have a direct impact (eg. the ability of companies to capitalize on quality improvement) for improving the competitiveness of companies such as the increase in market share and market growth. Second, the experience of previous studies, this paper adopts the contingency approach and configuration to explain the effects of individual and synergy of interaction between regulatory role (government) and the company. Some factors revealed that the interaction of the development of herbal products and the motivation of traditional medicine companies varied across industries.
Closed for Business: The value of openness in developing countries
Radboud University, Netherlands, The
In this paper we examine how regional knowledge availability influences the relationship between openness and innovative performance. According to the open innovation literature, openness to external actors and sources provide firms with new information which spurs innovative performance. However, the context to which a firm is opening up to has been largely ignored, while this may influence the costs and benefits of openness and eventually the relationship between openness and innovative performance. Hence, we explicitly consider how the context, in particular knowledge available within the region in which a firm is active, influences the realtionship between openness and innovation. We test our ideas with data stemming from the Enteripsise Survey 2013, the Innovation Module 2013 and the Innovation Capabilities Survey 2015 conducted by the World Bank in Bangladesh, Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. The results suggest that the relationship between openess and innovation is indeed contingent on the knowledge availability in the region in which the firm is active. The higher the regional knowledge availability, the more positive the relationship between openness and innovation. In regions where knowledge availability is low, openness can even have a negative effect. This contradicts the results found in developed countries, where a positive relationship has been widely established. Our study reveals that in some regions it could be even better to have a closed innovation approach.
Industrial Occupational Safety and Health Innovation for Sustainable Development
School of mechanical and Industrial engineering, Addis Ababa Institute of Technology, Addis Ababa University,Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Sustainable development is not thought in a box without development pillars. Researchers put these pillars as economy, society and environment. Upon improving these three pillars, sustainable development becomes trustworthy. However, the researchers’ findings have drawback in considering existing three pillars. Previous researches neglected to incorporate the other three pillars of sustainable development which are culture, political and technological factors. Having these pillars, sustainable development can also be guaranteed by considering workplace safety and health innovation for all internal and external entities engage at work. This is because of the implementation the pillars reduce the working environment accidents and disease. Hence, this research focuses on the workplace safety & health innovation, introducing new pillars for sustainable development, their impact on sustainable developments and indicating the three pillars future research areas. Methods like literature review, interviewing employees and observation of industries were used. There were few researches found on how sustainable development affected by workplace safety and health innovation approaches. However, this literature more focused on the relationship workplace innovation and sustainable development share in common. The other finding is that culture, technology and politics were not considered in the studies. The researchers have also attempted to forward roads toward sustainable development through occupational safety and health innovation and improvement approaches.
Dynamics of Knowledge Flows Among Firms in Local Production Systems: geographical proximity, vertical relations and learning by interaction
1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Economia da Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos - UNISINOS, Brazil; 2Departamento de Política Científica e Tecnológica da Universidade Estadual de Campinas - UNICAMP; 3Programa de Pós-Graduação em Economia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS
The key objective of this article is to understand the pattern of innovation generation for companies located in Local Production Systems (LPSs), based on the analysis of relations established with the other actors of those systems. This study intends to contribute to the literature in this field when it emphasizes vertical relations, i.e., between firms and their local and extra-local clients and suppliers. This study was focused on two sets of firms from the same productive segment – footwear machinery – belonging to two footwear LPSs: Vale do Rio dos Sinos in Brazil and Vigevano in Italy. As a theoretical and analytical referential, we used neo-Schumpeterian literature, which explains that innovation entails ongoing and progressive changes through different processes of learning and interaction. In methodological terms, it is noted that the firms in the two LPSs were surveyed by face-to-face interviews with a structured questionnaire. Compared to horizontal relations, we emphasized that vertical relations between footwear machinery manufacturers and their clients and suppliers are more frequent in both analyzed production systems. Among the learning processes external to the firms, learning by interaction was the most relevant and thus it was an element to explain the dynamics of innovation generation. In both systems analyzed, geographical proximity is important to establish the knowledge networks among key actors in the innovation process. Finally, research results are consistent with the characteristics of the sectorial pattern of segments producing equipment and machinery identified as specialized suppliers.
Bridging Innovation Systems and Value Chain Approaches for Inclusive Smallholder Development: Reflection on Multi-stakeholder Processes in Dairy Development in Tanzania
African Center for Technology Studies (ACTS), Kenya
A case study of smallholder dairy research for development in Tanzania is used in this article to analyse the integration of multi-stakeholder processes (MSPs) in smallholder-dominated agri-value chain interventions. Novel insights come from understanding MSPs through combined value-chain (VC) and innovation-systems perspectives that provide a multiscale view of upgrading as a pathway to inclusive agri-value chain development. MSP applications are informed by a development agenda that promotes them as intervention frameworks that can enable inclusive smallholder innovation and enterprise development, and contribute to broad development outcomes such as food, nutrition and income security. The main conclusion is that, although MSPs are important for catalysing the collaboration necessary to support smallholder inclusive innovation, their effects are largely bounded by existing VC structures, which may be exclusive and counteract MSP intentions.
Demand Driven Approach in the Agriculture Innovation System: A Case of Natural Rubber
Centre for Development Studies, Trivandrum, Kerala, India
The contemporary agricultural sector in India, which is dominated by small and marginal holdings over the past few decades, appears to be complex and influenced by various price and non-price related challenges. These challenges are recognized as highly uncertain and unpredictable with multiple dimensions (biophysical, technological, socio-cultural, economic, institutional, and political) as well as the involvement of multiple actors. In this context, many studies have questioned the inability of existing models in agriculture, which focused only on the creation of new knowledge and its conversion into technologies that can directly be used by farmers. Hence, to cope up, compete and survive with the rapidly evolving challenges in the contemporary agriculture, it becomes necessary the sector to innovate continually if it is to contribute towards sustainable economic development. In this regard, the agricultural innovation system (AIS) gained importance as an analytical framework which follows a demand driven approach to generate learning, innovations and competence building among different stakeholders. At this juncture, this paper have chosen the case of natural rubber (NR), a small grower dominated sector, which is highly vulnerable towards risks and uncertainties, to explore how far the system embedded in the NR sector able to adapt demand driven approach to address the challenges in the sector.
Expenses of Innovation and Performance Companies in Cameroon: A Strategic Perspective
University of Yaoundé II, Cameroon
The aim of this article is to analyse the returns on Research and Development (R&D); and expenditure of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) expenses on value added of firms. For the study, statistical bivariate test and Ordinary Least Squares techniques were used over the period of 2004-2011, on a sample of 101 firms. The main results show that the average yield of companies investing in R&D is higher than that of those that do not invest. On the other hand, the acquisition of ICT-related investments reveals that the average yield is statistically equal to that of those who do not invest. The econometric analysis based on panel data indicates that ICT and R&D innovation expenses, taken individually, have no statistically significant effects on the value added of enterprises in Cameroon. But these investments, being complementary, significantly improve business performance. Notwithstanding, the leader’s profile (age and duration in the post of responsibility) and firm characteristics (age and size) have a significant influence on the decision or strength to invest in innovation expenses.