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Resumen de las sesiones
GT30-SES02: Teoría y mecanismos sociales
Jueves, 30/06/2022:
16:00 - 17:30

Moderador/a: Francisco José León-Medina, Universidade da Coruña
Lugar: FEE-AULA C2/06

Facultad de Economía y Empresa. Edif. 2. 2ª Planta
Temas de la sesión:
GT 30 Sociología Analítica

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GT 30 Sociología Analítica

Naturally Different: Colorization, Haematization, Pathologization and Animalization as Extreme Forms of Ethnic-Boundary Making

Javier Polavieja

Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, España

Building on Wimmer’s (2013, 2015) and Loveman’s (2014) critiques of contemporary race theorizing, I propose to resituate research on race within a broader framework that studies processes of biologization of social difference as extreme (and effective) forms of ethnic-boundary making. Within this framework, I discuss four such processes: 1) Colorization, 2) Haematization, 3) Pathologization and 4) Animalization. I sustain that, throughout history, racialization processes have drawn both on haematization (typical of Spain’s 16th century racial thought and European 19th century racial nationalism) and colorization (typical of colonial and biological racism); and that these processes have often been accompanied by pathologization and animalization, typically associated to the most extreme forms of outgroup rejection. Drawing on insights from cognitive science, I characterize these processes as "neuro-discursive", a characterization that stresses their unique capacity to trigger basic (visceral) emotions towards the outgroup (anger, fear and disgust), while supressing the activation of other more complex emotion (e.g. pity, guilt), values and norms that could mitigate their ethnic-boundary making potential. To illustrate the explanatory potential of this analytical framework, I apply it to the study of Catalan nationalist thought from the 19th century to the present.

GT 30 Sociología Analítica

STS meets Analytical Sociology: can we solve the demarcation problem?

Germán Hevia Martínez

Universidad de Oviedo, España

Although mainstream philosophy of science stopped researching the question of what science is, it has become a recurring topic for some scholars in the light of recent anti-science movements. Nevertheless, new approaches tent to fall in the same errors of older ones: they focus too much on a normative view of science; they keep choosing the same disciplines as case study; and they completely overlooked all the empirical studies made by naturalised philosophy of science and STS.

In this talk I’m going to show how this gap between philosophy of science and STS can be filled using the tools of analytical sociology. First, I will address the main issues of the contemporary works about the demarcation problem. Second, I will expose the notion of realogical machine: a model based on the Coleman’s boat and self-fulfilling prophecies that can be used to show a possible mechanism behind the construction of social reality. The main hypothesis behind this notion is that metaphors and imaginaries (thought the beliefs of individuals) plays a key role at the macro level, helping to stablish the performance and behaviour of social systems through the repetitive and stable operation of actions by human agents according to a cognitive map (provided from those imaginaries) from which then social phenomena arises. At last, I will apply this model to the demarcation problem, showing a way of bridging philosophy and STS views together through the analysis of the microfoundations of those social enterprises that we refer as “science” and “technology”.

GT 30 Sociología Analítica

The myth behind poverty breeds crime. Classical theory and white-collar crimes

Tania Hahn Utrero1,2

1Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, España; 2University of Groningen, The Netherlands

Crime has always been one of the most important societal problems. People regularly experience the fear of being victims of crime, such as burglary or assault. This feeling of unsafety gives rise to distrust even among people who have never been direct victims of any crime.

The present work analyses, compares, evaluates and synthesizes two different perspectives that explain the societal problem that crime is. We will do so by following the ACES guide of van Zomeren (2020). On one hand we have the classical theory of crime, which considers the relationship between income and street crime, and on the other hand a perspective based on the so-called white-collar crimes.

Finally, we propose a new theory that integrates both classical theory and white-collar crimes, to help predict criminal behaviour and crime rates in a society.

GT 30 Sociología Analítica


Francisco Linares Martinez1, Francesc Miguel Quesada2, Jordi Tena Sánchez2, Francisco León Medina3

1Universidad de La Laguna, España; 2Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona; 3Universidade da Coruña

En el presente trabajo se presenta el diseño y los resultados de un experimento online que tiene por objetivo averiguar en qué medida ciertas formas de influencia social y ciertas topologías de red pueden afectar las decisiones de los individuos para contribuir a un bien público que, en este caso, es la donación de fondos para la investigación médica.

El experimento se ha realizado en el Centre for Experimental Social Sciences (CESS) del Nuffield College de la University of Oxford y en el han tomado parte un total de 504 sujetos, divididos en un total de 21 tratamientos (24 sujetos por tratamiento).

El experimento ha tratado de determinar en que medida la decisión de contribuir o no a un bien público puede venir determinada por los siguientes mecanismos de influencia social:

a) Exposición a una opinión fija de los vecinos sobre la confiabilidad de la institución a la que se realizan las donaciones.

b) Exposición a una opinión variable de los vecinos sobre la confiabilidad de la institución a la que se realizan las donaciones (en este caso puede que se observe una dinámica de opiniones que quizá acabe en un equilibrio).

c) Exposición a un sistema de sanciones implementado por los propios vecinos.

d) Exposición al hecho de que la mayoría de los vecinos sean de un mismo sexo.

Cada uno de estos mecanismos ha sido implementado en grupos de población, estructurados según tres tipos de redes distintas: a) small-world, b) ciclo y c) random.

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