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Resumen de las sesiones
Sesión
GT06-SES01: Desigualdad y mercado laboral
Hora:
Jueves, 30/06/2022:
9:00 - 10:30

Moderador/a: Jorge Rodríguez Menés, Universitat Pompeu Fabra
Lugar: FCCTT/TS AULA 1.5

Facultades de Ciencias del Trabajo y Trabajo Social Edif. 11. 1ª Planta FACULTAD DE TRABAJO SOCIAL
Temas de la sesión:
GT 06 Desigualdad y Estratificación Social

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Ponencias
GT 06 Desigualdad y Estratificación Social

Pobreza de las personas en edad activa: la combinación de rentas del trabajo y transferencias sociales

Aroa Tejero, Fermín López-Rodríguez, Rodolfo Gutiérrez

Universidad de Oviedo, España

La Gran Recesión cambió la pauta tradicional de riesgo de pobreza entre personas en edad potencialmente activa e inactiva en España. Durante la última década, el primer grupo ha pasado a tener un riesgo de pobreza sensiblemente más alto que el segundo y el ciclo de recuperación posterior apenas ha corregido ese diferencial.

Este trabajo se propone analizar el riesgo de pobreza de las personas en edad activa en España y el efecto de las transferencias sociales en la reducción de ese riesgo. En primer lugar, se describen los riesgos de pobreza de la población en edad activa diferenciando por situaciones laborales (dentro y fuera de la ocupación) con el objetivo de demostrar que las personas que trabajan se enfrentan a una situación de pobreza menos severa. En segundo lugar, se examina la composición de los ingresos de los hogares pobres, así como la variedad y extensión de las diferentes prestaciones sociales que reciben. Se trataría de evidenciar hasta qué punto la combinación de rentas laborales y transferencias ayuda a evitar los riesgos de pobreza. Por último, se analiza la efectividad de los distintos tipos de transferencias sociales sobre la reducción del riesgo de pobreza para comprobar que las transferencias más efectivas son las prestaciones contributivas

La fuente de datos que se utiliza es la European Union Suvey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC). Esta encuesta es adecuada porque incluye información sobre rentas y características individuales y de los hogares; además de ofrecer información comparada de la Unión Europea.



GT 06 Desigualdad y Estratificación Social

Competition and discrimination in the labor market: Are the employers rational when they discriminate ethnic minorities?

Javier Carrero Rodriguez, Javier García de Polavieja

Universidad Carlos III de Madrid

Previous research and theorizing suggest ethnic discrimination in the labor market should be higher when employers face no search difficulties in the hiring process —i.e., discrimination increases with the level of competition for vacancies. This model assumes employers have a hidden taste or propensity for discrimination, which they can only realize when they have enough candidates to choose from. This study presents an alternative mechanism that is consistent with both norm-referenced evaluation and statistical discrimination theory. This alternative argument contends employers learn about each applicant’s quality by comparing them with other candidates in the pool. This process of evaluation by comparison allows employers to fill at least some of the information gaps on which statistical discrimination is based. Thus, the larger the pool of candidates, the more information employers can acquire. This means, unless employers have a hidden taste for discrimination, ethnic minorities who are qualified for a given job will have greater employment chances if they can compete in a large pool. Using data from a unique online correspondence test, which retrieves information on the size of the applicant pool for each job vacancy, our results confirm this alternative hypothesis, showing that ethnic discrimination in the labor market is lower when there is a higher level of competition, thus challenging previous research.



GT 06 Desigualdad y Estratificación Social

Exploring job profiles, skill specifications, and firm needs. A qualitative review of hiring practices and processes by private enterprises

Kimberly Goulart1, Jorge Menés2

1Universitat Pompeu Fabra, España; 2Universitat Pompeu Fabra, España

The growing trends of globalization, technological change, frequent labor market interruptions and demographic changes have led to vast changes in skills requirements and job profiles. While much of the literature has taken a task-based approach to examine changes in work content, we offer a qualitative exploration into the provenance of job descriptions, by examining the approaches and practices deployed by enterprises in their hiring and decision-making processes. We collect and analyze data from several structured interviews and focus groups with enterprises located in Barcelona, Spain. After conducting a content analysis along with a qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), we produce broad job profiles, common descriptors of tasks and skills included in job descriptions, and key signals for hiring decisions.



GT 06 Desigualdad y Estratificación Social

Social class of origin and income variations among university degree holders: evidence from Italy

Luca Giangregorio1, Jorge Rodríguez Menés2

1Universitat Pompeu Fabra, España; 2Universitat Pompeu Fabra, España

The role of educational attainment in intergenerational social mobility has been widely discussed in the sociological literature, but mostly in its vertical dimension. There is much less work on the role of the horizontal dimension of education, the one defined by fields of studies within educational levels. This paper investigates the role of educational fields in the intergenerational transmission of advantage among Italian university graduates. It assesses if the impact of social origins on the wages they earn in the first occupation varies by fields of study. Using a large sample of Italian university graduates, we test whether graduates’ class of origin is stronger in “soft fields”—like humanities, economics, social sciences, and law—than in “hard” ones—engineering, architecture, sciences, medicine. We observe that individuals with a privileged background who graduated in economics & statistics, law, and other social sciences earn around 3-4% higher wages than their socially less advantaged counterpart. Puzzling, we also find a class wage advantage in medicine. The evidence suggests that in soft fields where candidates find it more difficult to provide signals to prospective employers on personal productivity due to lower degrees of technical specialization, or in hard fields where occupations are stratified according to levels of decision-making due to their being exposed to differential levels of uncertainty, a privileged background is a valuable information helping employers sort candidates towards jobs with alternative rewards.



 
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Declaración de privacidad · Congreso: XIV Congreso Español de Sociología 2022
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