Conference Agenda

Overview and details of the sessions of this conference. Please select a date or location to show only sessions at that day or location. Please select a single session for detailed view (with abstracts and downloads if available).

Session Overview
Date: Sunday, 10/Jun/2018
3:00pm - 6:00pmRegistration
6:00pm - 8:00pmWelcome Reception
Seneca Room 
Date: Monday, 11/Jun/2018
8:00am - 5:30pmRegistration: Registration of participants
8:30am - 9:10amOpening: Opening Session
Session Chair: Mohammad Munir Ahmad
Session Chair: Dusan Sormaz
Westin Grand Ballroom 
9:10am - 10:00amMon-09.10-Gb: Keynote 1: Large scale 3D printing – past, present and future prospects
Session Chair: Dusan Sormaz
Speaker: Behrokh Khoshnevis, Contour Crafting, University of Southern California
Westin Grand Ballroom 

Large scale 3D printing – past, present and future prospects

Behrokh Khoshnevis

Contour Crafting Corporation (CC Corp)

Since over two decades ago, when the speaker invented the Contour Crafting technology and started the development in the field of large scale 3D printing, no other activity in the field was initiated for over a decade. More recently the number of related developments have been almost exponentially increasingly. Technologies using various materials and various robotics approaches have been recently under development targeting a multitude of applications in the large scale domain. A historical perspective, a review of current activities and discussion of future prospects for terrestrial and planetary applications of large scale 3D printing will be presented.

10:00am - 10:50amMon-10.00-Gb: Keynote 2: A Supply Chain Model for Additive Manufacturing: A Medical Case component
Session Chair: F. Frank Chen
Speaker: Richard A. Wysk, North Carolina State University, US
Westin Grand Ballroom 

A Supply Chain Model for Additive Manufacturing: A Medical Case component

Richard A. Wysk

North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC

This presentation presents an exciting new topic for industrial/manufacturing engineering – using Additive Manufacturing (AM), or 3D Printing as it is commonly known in the press, to produce unique one-of-a-kind parts. Although AM has held the promise of making functional metal components directly from a CAD model in 1-2 days with very little human interactions, deficiencies associated with AM makes this vision difficult to achieve. For instance, parts coming from a metal AM process are typically the texture of a casting, meaning that they require finishing operations of some sort. This cast like surface also affects the mechanical properties of the component often leaving these parts with less than desired fatigue properties.

10:50am - 11:20amCoffee break
11:20am - 12:40pmMon-11.20-Ch: Design and Manufacturing of Personalized Products and Services 1
Session Chair: Roland Stolt
Session Chair: Ardian Qorri
Chittenden Room 
11:20am - 11:40am

A new approach to predict the flexibility and precision of manufacturing systems using geometric constraints and small displacement torsors

Hana Amin Khan1, Sajid Ullah Butt2, Aamer Ahmed Baqai2, Hasan Aftab Saeed2

1Electrical Engineering Department, Foundation University, Islamabad Pakistan; 2National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan

Cost and quality of a product are prime drivers in manufacturing. It is important to optimize these variables for maximum benefit. It is to be noted that higher quality means a product which has fewer errors. The quality of product is associated with the precision of the manufacturing system but machines to produce such products are expensive. Therefore, a method of machine selection is devised based on tolerance range. In this study, mathematical formulation is developed for parallelism and perpendicularity constraints of a surface using the concept of torsors. Torsors represent any feature (plane, cylinder, point, etc.) only in terms of its degree of freedom. Torsors also have the advantage of being added during tolerance stack-up. Mathematical equations are developed for parallelism and perpendicularity as the function of surface parameters i.e. surface angles. Alternatively, the developed model can be used to control surface parameters to obtain the required tolerances. Maximum and minimum values of system parameters are calculated. Assuming that the parameters of the manufactured parts follow statistical distribution, random values of the surface parameters are generated and compared with the parallelism and perpendicularity constraints. It is concluded that the behavior of parallelism and perpendicularity tolerances is more precise if we control individual parameters. The results are in compliance with the proposed idea that a less precise machine can produce high quality product within a specific tolerance range as the machine need not control parallelism but only the dependent variables.

11:40am - 12:00pm

Comparison of Visual Performance with Operational Fatigue Level based on Eye Tracking Model

Seng Fat Wong, Yufang Cong

University of Macau, Macau S.A.R. (China)

Fatigue is an important factor which can cause health problem and decrease work efficiency. The state of the art of fatigue study in visual performance, researches are mainly committed to Visual Display Terminal (VDT) screen luminance, resolution, and the distance between the VDT and operators. This paper aims to find out whether the degree of fatigue and colour combination that can influence visual performance when interacting with a text-based and eye tracking based with exercise and no-exercise consideration. Viewing performance of 30 subjects was estimated with an eye tracker measuring before doing exercise and after doing exercise. Eye blinks significantly affected by text colour background. The colour background resulting in the more times blinks, and the white background lead to a long time blink. The testers who do exercise before the experiment have a positive performance than the common people in attention test. For the more exercise subjects, the long time they have a rest, the good performance they do. Therefore, the operators who are mental working type appropriate exercise that can lead to have good effect in working, and the change of working interface motivates eye movements and improves eye performance.

12:00pm - 12:20pm

Introducing Tool Inserts for Die Casting Manufactured by Selective Laser Sintering

Roland Stolt, Samuel André, Fredrik Elgh

Jonkoping University, Sweden, Sweden

The advances in additive manufacturing (AM) for high grade steels has in some cases made it possible to manufacture tool inserts for demanding processes like high pressure die casting (HPDC). However, several challenges remain before this becomes commonplace. There is still a need of secondary manufacturing steps on the insert after printing. Also, extensive design changes must be made on the die inserts to fully utilize the advantages of AM. Further, the die insert is only one of many parts needed in the die assembly. Much of the die manufacturing will still be done by conventional methods. In this paper, several companies involved in the manufacturing and use of dies for HPDC have been interviewed on that they think is the future role of AM in their business. The result is that the effect of just printing the inserts would will be quite limited at present. Bringing down the time spent on die manufacture is important since that time then could be spent on improving the manufacturability of the parts.

12:20pm - 12:40pm

Green Supply Chain Management Practices and Company Performance: A Meta-analysis approach

Ardian Qorri1, Zlatan Mujkić1, Saranda Gashi2, Andrzej Kraslawski1,3

1School of Business and Management - Industrial Engineering and Management, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland; 2Facoltà di Economia "Giorgio Fuà" - Università Politecnica delle Marche, Italy; 3Faculty of Process and Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Lodz, Poland

Varying conceptualizations of green supply chain management (GSCM) practices can be observed in extant literature and there is evidence of mixed results relating GSCM practices to firm performance. These inconclusive findings have often confused managers which practices would yield desired performance outcomes. Hence, by applying meta-analysis approach in 85 independent effect sizes with a total sample size of 20011 firms, we tested the impact of GSCM practices on firm performance. Findings indicate that the relationship between GSCM practices and firm performance is positive and significant, providing empirical generalization and support to practitioners and scholars. Likewise, the GSCM practices positively and significantly influence environmental, social, operational and economic performance. This relationship is moderated by geographical region, industry type and firm size. Future studies should test how ascendants of GSCM practices affect firm’s sustainability performance.

11:20am - 12:40pmMon-11.20-Ga: Enterprise Knowledge Management
Session Chair: Milton Borsato
Session Chair: Nengi Odimabo
Great Southern Gallery 
11:20am - 11:40am

Risk Management Analysis in Product Development - Bibliometric and systemic analysis to identify research opportunities

Gustavo Bastchen1, Fernanda Silva2, Milton Borsato3

1UTFPR, Brazil; 2UTFPR, Brazil; 3UTFPR, Brazil

There are several risks inherent to the design phase of product development that need to be managed seeking to reduce or eliminate them. In this context, this study aims to learn the scientific research trend related to the topic to create a knowledge base and find research gaps relevant to the literature. The ProKnow-C methodology was used for the analysis, as well as for the selection of the scientific article portfolio. At the end of the study, a total of 23 relevant scientific articles were obtained in the bibliographic portfolio from which the research challenges and the trends regarding this theme could be highlighted to guide future research.

11:40am - 12:00pm

Guideline to aid Project Managers in Conceptualising and Implementing Risk Management in Building Projects

Nengi Odimabo, Chike F Oduoza

University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom

Risk management has become a critical issue as a result of globalisation and the continued quest for greater returns. Construction organisations most especially in developing countries, approach risk management in building construction projects by using a set of practices that are normally insufficient, produce poor results often, and turn profitable building construction projects into loosing ventures. An integrated risk management approach allows construction organisations to consistently deliver superior performance while proactively managing risk. To address this gap, this paper offers a consolidated risk management system for building projects and provides project managers with guidelines for its proper implementation. In addition to helping project managers in improving risk management capability in building projects, the guideline profiled in this paper may also be of use to practitioners in other project risk management settings.

12:00pm - 12:20pm

Comparative Analysis of Knowledge Management Activities in SMEs: Empirical Study from a Developing Country

Zorica Uzelac1, Djordje Celic1, Viktorija Petrov2, Zoran Draskovic1, Dalibor Beric1

1Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Serbia; 2Faculty of Economics, University of Novi Sad, Serbia

Literature on knowledge management constantly reinforces the notion that knowledge management is necessary for effective performance of the organizations in the knowledge-based economy. To survive in the global economy small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have to improve their products and processes exploiting their intellectual capital in a dynamic network of knowledge-intensive relations inside and outside their enterprise borders. The SMEs face different knowledge management challenges from lager firms as they have understandable resource constraints, and hence have to be creative in working around these limitations in order to manage knowledge.

There are emerging concepts concerning knowledge management in SMEs as a whole, but very few have examined SMEs in transitional economies, from material-based industrial economy to knowledge-based economy. This article attempts to provide an appropriate model of key factors of knowledge management activities in SMEs in the transitional economic environment.

SMEs may not, however, be a homogeneous group in regards to knowledge management.

In transitional economies there are two types of SMEs equally present, one whose business is material-based, and the other one whose business is knowledge-based.

The objective of this article is also to investigate whether the type of the SMEs has influence on the importance of key factors of the knowledge management activities.

Research hypotheses are tested through the data gathered from 760 questionnaire responses collected at 86 SMEs in Serbia. Serbia is a country in transition. Apart from the existing global economic transition from the industrial to the knowledge era, Serbia is also undergoing a social transition from one political system to another, from non-market to market economy, and is in a process of industrial privatization. Therefore Serbia presents a unique socio-economic laboratory and more turbulent environment than what can be found in developed countries.

Given that economies in transition are characterized by high instability and lack of financial resources, finding any kind of relationships concerning knowledge management activities is even more important for efficient and effective allocation of scarce resources.

11:20am - 12:40pmMon-11.20-Ne: Lean and Agile Manufacturing 1
Session Chair: Chike F Oduoza
Session Chair: Rebekka Büttner
Neil Room 
11:20am - 11:40am

Influence of Lean Practice on Performance of Manufacturing SMEs in Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI)

Ibrahim Salih Mohammad, Chike F Oduoza

University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom

Lean Manufacturing (LM) is a global initiative that can create continuous improvement in business performance by eliminating waste, reducing cycle time and promoting value-added activities. This study aims to examine empirically the influences of LM practices on the performance of SMEs. A comprehensive review of the LM literature was conducted, and seven variables were presented that dominate LM practices in Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI). Data was collected and analysed from 207 manufacturing SMEs showing that LM practices partially influence the business performance. The findings could be a good driver for introducing Lean techniques to the manufacturing SMEs within developing countries. It also provides valuable information for SMEs managers to improve the performance of their business in terms of increasing customer satisfaction, profitability, employee satisfaction, competitiveness and ergonomic design.

11:40am - 12:00pm

Cloud Kanban Framework for Service Operations Management

Krishnan Krishnaiyer, F. Frank Chen, Hamed Bouzary

The University of Texas at San Antonio, United States of America

As continuous improvement tools evolve, so does the complexity and the size of data. With the ubiquity of data and the scale of machine automation, abilities for rapid decision making and handling of ever-increasing complexity of system become necessary. In this paper, we propose a cloud Kanban framework that enables deployment of process excellence. The study addresses two research questions: (1) how a robust cloud-based Kanban decision support framework could work for a service industry, particularly in operations? (2) how can an evolutionary algorithm, specifically Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), underpin such system?

12:00pm - 12:20pm

Changeability of manufacturing companies in the context of digitalization

Rebekka Büttner1, Egon Müller2

1BMW Group, Germany; 2Chemnitz University of Technology, Germany

Besides volatile markets and shorter process life cycles, digitalization is one of the most important influences companies have to deal with in the next years. Changeability is the basic requirement to stay successful in times of unpredictable transitions. Current research does not reflect the interdependencies that result from both the influences of digitalization and the necessary changeability of manufacturing companies.

This paper shows which opportunities and risks arise from digitalization and how existing models of changeability handle these challenges, using the example of automotive industry. The focus is on organizational aspects while the state of research mainly considers technical enablers. One major extension refers to communication issues, based on a system-theoretical approach. In this context, communication leads to more efficient decision-making processes. Therefore, it is seen as one main aspect in dealing with the implementation of technical developments, such as digitalization. The paper proposes first approaches of how existing changeability models have to be supplemented in the future.

The research topic aims to develop a model that adds organizational items as a further enabler to the production factors human effort and technology. The model is validated within the automotive industry: To harness the opportunities of digitalization, a team of experts is set up within a plant. In this team, colleagues from all main departments are working closely together on digitalization topics, combining the knowledge of all production sections. This small organization is embedded in the established structure of the factory and networked with its environment. The use case shows, that flexible structures are necessary to improve communication.

Finally, the resulting model helps companies handling the challenges of digitalization in order to maintain competitiveness.

12:20pm - 12:40pm

Agile Integrated Facilities Maintenance Approach to Apparel Sector

Wathsala Chamini Thenuwara, Y. G. Sandanayake

Department of Building Economics, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka

Facilities managers in apparel sector face numerous uncertainties due to the unpredictable nature of facilities maintenance. In this context, apparel industry practitioners urge for an effective facilities maintenance strategy to minimize uncertainty and opt to adopt strategic changes in maintenance approaches in recent past. Agility is one such systematically designed-in capability to accomplish flexibility and responsiveness in an unpredictable turbulent environment. This paper investigates the synergy between agile concept and facilities maintenance to propose agile integrated facilities maintenance (AFM) approach. A literature review followed by in-depth interviews with six experts in leading apparel sector organizations, factory observations and document reviews were carried out to investigate the applicability of agile concept for facilities maintenance and hence to develop AFM approach for apparel sector. Gathered data were analyzed using code-based content analysis. The agile integrated facilities maintenance approach developed in this study consists of agile principles, strategies, processes, linkages and people, and will deliver more responsive and flexible facilities maintenance service to the apparel sector.

11:20am - 12:40pmMon-11.20-Pa: Modelling and Simulation of Manufacturing and Services 1
Session Chair: Pawel Pawlewski
Session Chair: Mandvi Malik
Park Room 
11:20am - 11:40am

Logistics maturity model for service company – theoretical background

Karolina Werner-Lewandowska, Monika Kosacka-Olejnik, Marek Fertsch

Poznan University of Technology, Poland

The aim of the paper is to present results of research conducted on development the logistics maturity model used for service companies. The paper introduces theoretical model of logistics maturity model prepared according to the results of literature review. Proposed maturity model was designed for service companies, whose market share is growing. This model considers three key elements: SCOR model with definition of logistics activity areas in a service company, logistics engineering focused on the mathematical or scientific application of Logistics and logistics development phases in the industry, which were assigned levels of logistics maturity in service sector. Paper presents theoretical frameworks for future research which should be directed towards analyzing logistics maturity profile in service sector on the basis of proposed theoretical model.

11:40am - 12:00pm

Planning and optimising petroleum supply chain

Sameh M Saad, Elganidi H Elsaghier, David Ezaga

Sheffield Hallam University, United Kingdom

The purpose of this paper is to develop and implement an integrated framework for planning and optimising petroleum supply chain.

The framework consists of two stages, First-stage is to address mathematically the strategic planning and the optimisation of the extracted oil which is needed within the petroleum supply chain. While the second stage focuses on the operational planning of the refinery area using a combined discrete and continues simulation modelling techniques. The simulation model considered the following factors: Input Rate, Oil Quality, Distillation Capacity and Number of Failed Separators which are analysed against the performance measures: Total Products and Equipment Utilisation. The results obtained from the experiment are analysed statistically using SPSS Programme.

12:00pm - 12:20pm

Using PFEP for simulation modeling of production systems

Pawel Pawlewski

Poznan University of Technology, Poland

Paper focuses on simulation modeling of production systems. Author describes how to use PFEP (Plan for Every Part) to automate building of simulation models of production systems. First section of paper concentrates on the analysis of standard approaches to modeling production systems proposed in simulation programs offered on the market. In next section the idea of lean thinking – continuous flow is presented. The basis of this thinking is formed by Plan For Every Part. The main contribution of this paper is to explain how to use the PFEP for simulation modeling. The example of forming simulation model based on PFEP is presented as last section of the paper. Data from automotive industry were used to build this sample model.

12:20pm - 12:40pm

Data-driven Simulation Modelling for Progressive Care Units in Hospitals

Dusan Sormaz, Mandvi Malik

Ohio University, United States of America

Nowadays, simulation is extensively used in healthcare as a decision-making tool. However, the traditional simulation models made in the past require an operation research analyst or a person who is familiar with the simulation background. To address this shortcoming, the focus of this study is creation of data-driven simulation modelling framework for progressive care units in health care. In data-driven modelling, the simulation model is automatically generated from the data using templates and add-ins. In this research two add-in are designed in Simio: data table generator and model object importer and C# is used as a coding language to create the add-ins. Data table generator is add-in that creates the structure of data files in Simio, while model object importer generates all model objects using the data imported from an external file or database. The data driven modelling framework is then validated by building the simulation model of PCU which has components as specified in the external files. The proposed simulation model can be reused to create any other PCU model. The test model is then run for a prescribed time period and its results collected. The data-driven simulation model would help the inpatient unit managers in determining the number of resources in the unit in a rapid fashion without duplicating the work of model logic building.

11:20am - 12:40pmMon-11.20-Th: Smart Factories and Internet of Things
Session Chair: Sang Won Yoon
Session Chair: Jonas Wullbrandt
Thurber Room 
11:20am - 11:40am

Industry_Integrator as retrofit solution for digital manufacturing methods in existing industrial plants

Dennis Cüneyt Bakir, Robin Bakir, Engels Florian

Innovator_Institut, Germany

The full paper will describe the ongoing research and implementing activities of a German co-founded and cross-sectoral applied research project, called “Industrie_Integrator”. This project merges the disciplines mechanical engineering, modern IT, tool manufacturing, plastic processing, food technology as well as academia.

The developed industry integration device itself serves as a quite handy and easy to use enabler for smart production, even in existing and overaged production systems in rough environment. No integration towards cap rails or even cabling is necessary, as essential data aggregation and evaluation is done decentral at the spot of data origin. The Integrators themselves are bound via a unique communication protocol and are performing in a dynamic meshed network.

For the first time the device itself will be shown and typical industrial application scenarios will be evaluated.

Keywords: Retrofit; Digital Manufacturing; Industry 4.0; Smart Data; complexity management.

11:40am - 12:00pm

Industrie 4.0 in production ramp-up management

Uwe Dombrowski, Jonas Wullbrandt, Philipp Krenkel

Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany

Shorter product life cycles and the growing complexity of new products and processes are leading to a greater relevance of production ramp-up management in the future. This statement is verified by the increasing amount of journal articles that focus on the instability that is inherent in ramp-up processes. The time and cost sensitive ramp-up phase, which is often characterized by low production capacity but high production demand, has a significant impact on the productivity level and thereby on the success of the entire company. In order to master the increasing number of ramp-up phases successfully, firms more and more realize that the coordination of humans and technologies in instable ramp-up projects has to become daily business. One promising approach to master high complexity and instability in socio-technical systems is Industrie 4.0. If the forecasts can be believed, the technologies and data availability that come along with the fourth industrial revolution will lead to productivity growth of up to 30%. However, in current literature there is no contribution existing that focuses on the interaction of production ramp-up management and Industrie 4.0. Based on an analysis of both approaches, this paper aims at identifying interdependencies and opportunities that will help ramp-up managers to better master instability in future ramp-up phases.

12:00pm - 12:20pm

A Distributed Adaptive Coordination Protocol to Enhance Manual Order Picking Operations

Husam R. Dauod, Ibrahim Yilmaz, Sang Won Yoon

Binghamton University, United States of America

This paper proposes a distributed adaptive coordination protocol for efficient management of manual order picking operations in the presence of unexpected delays and process disruptions. In manual order picking operations, multiple pickers work concurrently to retrieve inventory from aisles in response to customer orders. The lack of pickers coordination often leads to congestion incidents and high non-value added time as pickers attempt to locally optimize their routing decisions. In this research, pickers are modeled as a collaborative network in which they share their work and traffic information, and accordingly adjust their routes to avoid congestion and manage aisle competition. An adaptive coordination protocol is developed to enable pickers efficiently reach consensus (i.e., agreement) state on route adjustments. The proposed protocol is compared using simulation against the baseline case, and the experimental results indicate that it minimizes total order picking time and pickers congestion by 10.4% and 62.6%, respectively.

12:20pm - 12:40pm

A Dynamic Sampling Approach for Cost Reduction in Semiconductor Manufacturing

Gian Antonio Susto1, Marco Maggipinto1, Federico Zocco2, Sean McLoone2

1University of Padova, Italy; 2Queen's University Belfast, United Kingdom

In semiconductor manufacturing, metrology is generally a high cost, non-value added operation that impacts significantly on cycle time. As such, reducing wafer metrology continues to be a major target in semiconductor manufacturing efficiency initiatives. Data-driven spatial dynamic sampling methodologies are here compared. Such strategies aim at minimizing the number of sites that need to be measured across a wafer surface while maintaining an acceptable level of wafer profile reconstruction accuracy. The Dynamic Sampling approaches are based on analysing historical metrology data to determine, from a set of candidate wafer sites, the minimum set of sites that need to be monitored in order to reconstruct the full wafer profile using statistical regression techniques. Dynamic sampling is then implemented in various strategies that guarantee coverage of all the possible sites in a given set of process iteration. In this way, the risk of not detecting previously unseen process behaviour is mitigated. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed methodology using both simulation studies and metrology data from a semiconductor manufacturing process.

12:40pm - 1:40pmLunch break
1:40pm - 3:40pmMon-13.40-Ch: Additive, Subtractive and Hybrid Manufacturing 1
Session Chair: Mika Lohtander
Session Chair: Andi Dine
Chittenden Room 
1:40pm - 2:00pm

On the development of a robotic 3D printing system

Andi Dine, George-Christopher Vosniakos

National Technical University of Athens, Greece

This paper reports on the design, construction and preliminary programming of a prototype 3D printing head based on the Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) technique, aimed for attachment to an industrial robot to form a robotic 3D printer.

First, design alternatives for the 3D printing head are presented and criteria for their evaluation comparison are designated. For the best alternative, detailed design is presented including theoretical calculations regarding pressure drop in the nozzle based on experimental data available for attributes of PLA pertaining to flow at high temperatures.

Design of the mechanical parts of the head is highlighted, most part being made from aluminium and machined in-house. Selection of off-the-shelf electronic components and their inter-connection is also covered. A description of the assembly steps and connection to the robotic arm is provided.

Programming of the 3D printer paths including modifications required to cater for differences between robotic and desktop printers is outlined. Synchronisation of the robot and the 3D printing head is also detailed, including the necessary code peculiar to the particular implementation.

A number of printed artefacts are presented and their accuracy is measured to preliminarily validate functionality of the robotic 3D printer, deemed totally acceptable. Future work is designated in terms of generalisation of 3D model slicing and robotic 3D printer programming.

2:00pm - 2:20pm

Fabrication of surfaces with reduced friction using nanosecond pulse laser

Jarno, Jere, Juhani Kaakkunen, Jonna Tiainen, Ahti Jaatinen-Värri, Aki Grönman, Mika Lohtander

Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland

Functional surfaces fabrication for turbine wing applications using nanosecond pulse laser is presented in this paper. This manufacturing method is utilized to fabricate trapezoidal shape structures that are reducing the friction. These structures are also called as riblets. They are used for example in turbine wing applications to make system more economical. Previously, these structures have been manufactured using ultrashort pulse lasers. With this way, it is possible to manufacture riblets with high accuracy but fabrication time is usually high and systems to realize them are expensive. By using nanosecond pulse laser it is not only possible to manufacture riblets with higher fabrication speed but also more economically. Although quality of the nanosecond pulse laser manufactured riblets are not as good as ones fabricated with ultrashort pulse lasers, they are still able to reduce friction remarkable in turbine wing application.

2:20pm - 2:40pm

G-code Visualization and Editing Program for Inexpensive Metal 3D Printing

Trung Huy Duong, Nebojsa I. Jaksic, Jude L. DePalma, Bahaa Ansaf, D Michael Daniel, James Armijo, Miguel Galaviz

Colorado State University-Pueblo, United States of America

This work focuses on improving an existing system for 3D printing of metal objects using a sinterable clay or paste. The existing software and firmware used by the current 3D Mini Metal Maker (MMM) printer produce a high rate of poor quality products that result from either under-extrusion or over-extrusion conditions. In practice, to successfully print an object, different extrusion rates and printing speeds are needed for different sections of the part, such as the outline, the infill, and the lettering. For an MMM printer, the extrusion rate is manually controlled by a knob, which is ineffective and inaccurate given the noticeable lag response of the extruder motor. In this paper, a 3D visualization MATLAB program is developed to read the G-code file, separate the G-code into color-coded sections and produce a 3D graphical model, and change the values according to user specifications. It allows users to easily and visually recognize and select a separate chunk of G-code, such as layer by layer or individual graphical elements in each layer, then edits the printing speed and extrusion rate accordingly. It also allows users to optimize these printing parameters in a batch mode if such desired printing speeds and extrusion rates for a different section of the printing part are already known. Experiments conducted with an MMM printer and bronze-paste materials show improvements in both printing time and quality.

2:40pm - 3:00pm

Topology optimization of 2.5D parts using the SIMP method with a variable thickness approach

Volkan Kandemir1, Oguz Dogan2, Ulas Yaman3

1ROKETSAN, Turkey; 2ASELSAN, Turkey; 3Middle East Technical University, Turkey

In this study, the topology optimization of 2.5D parts under various load and support conditions is conducted using Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization (SIMP) method. Topology optimization is performed using Grasshopper with TopOpt toolbox. The raw data of TopOpt result is processed and ready-to-print geometry is automatically generated within the Grasshopper file.

There are various topology optimization studies in which no penalization is applied and intermediate material densities are represented by appropriate microstructures. However, it is known that microstructures generally contribute to the stress concentrations. Moreover, automated part generation is highly time consuming when it is used with complex microstructures. In addition to that, the microstructures significantly increase the size of the CAD files. Beside all these, manufacturing of microstructures is strongly limited by the capability of AM machines. In this study, it is aimed to provide an easier method that is distinguished by the generality of applicability and the simplicity of implementation. SIMP method is applied with no penalization. The regions having intermediate material densities are constructed using Variable Thickness approach that is explained in this study in detail.

The results of the classical SIMP with penalization and proposed method (SIMP with no penalization followed by variable thickness approach) are compared experimentally in terms of maximum load carrying capacity and deformations. The load carrying results of the current method compare well with the classical SIMP method with penalization and the deformations are quite similar for specified weight saving ratios.

3:00pm - 3:20pm

Comprehensive Analysis of the Shrinkage Compensation Approach Proposed for the FDM process

Mecid Ugur Dilberoglu1, Seyda Simsek2, Ulas Yaman1

1Middle East Technical University, Turkey; 2ASELSAN, Turkey

This paper first reviews the method proposed by one of the authors to compensate the shrinkage in the holes of the parts printed with Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) method. It basically uses shrinkage as a tool to compensate shrinkage. The lines printed over the perimeter of the holes eliminate the shrinkage of the holes by their shrinkage (internal stresses). After a brief description of the method, the paper will focus on the details of the improved analytical method. Although it seems to be simple, it successfully estimates the amount shrinkage in the holes. The values obtained from the analytical model are compared with the measurements taken on the Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM). At different height, diameter of the hole is measured by touching probe of the CMM at many points. Moreover, we have performed warpage simulations utilizing new software in the field. All measurements revealed that the proposed design approach can decrease the dimensional error substantially compared to the printed parts with the conventional design and manufacturing pipeline.

3:20pm - 3:40pm

Characterization of resistors created by fused filament fabrication using electrically-conductive filament

Nebojsa Ilija Jaksic1, Pratik Dilip Desai2

1Colorado State University - Pueblo, United States of America; 2Rice Lake Weighing Systems, United States of America

Desktop fused filament fabrication (FFF) printers (3D printers) are ubiquitous rapid prototyping (RP) and additive manufacturing (AM) devices used by small and large companies as well as by hobbyists. Their attractiveness stems from the inexpensive hardware, inexpensive plastic materials, affordable CAD environments, and short training times.

This research explores design of passive electrical elements such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors created by the FFF printing process and electrically-conductive graphene-based filament. The three passive electrical elements are designed, constructed, and characterized. A number of tests are performed resulting in a set of build recommendations. With this capability to directly create electrical components integrated into 3D printed physical objects many designers can envision and produce new and/or improved electrical and mechatronics devices.

1:40pm - 3:40pmMon-13.40-Ga: Workshop: Intelligent Planning, Part 1
Session Chair: Dusan Sormaz
Additional fee, only for workshop ticket holders.
Great Southern Gallery 

Tools and Applications of Intelligent Manufacturing Planning, Part 1

Dusan Sormaz

Ohio University, United States of America

This workshop will provide an overview of tools and methods for integrative manufacturing planning, which includes distributed (agent-based) applications for product development cycle: design, process planning, setup planning, manufacturing scheduling and FMS simulation. Product development cycle starts with a product design in CAD software and its CAD model transfer to other applications. The first application is feature mapping/feature recognition in order to convert part geometry into valid manufacturing features. Process planning starts with a process selection using rule based tools, proceeds to machine and tool determination, cost and time estimation, and completes with a process network generation and plan optimization through sequencing and clustering for necessary setups. Process plans can be optimized statically (before actual manufacturing) or dynamically (during the manufacturing execution). In the latter case, significant improvements are expected, as process plan network is optimized during execution, and the savings and performance are usually verified by discrete simulation of the manufacturing (FMS) process.

This workshop details procedures and methods for above mentioned tasks, and demonstrates their applicability on several real world examples in an agent based distributed planning system IMPlanner-MAS.

1:40pm - 3:40pmMon-13.40-Ne: Cellular Manufacturing Design and Control
Session Chair: Ilkay Saracoglu
Session Chair: Azadeh Sadeghi
Neil Room 
1:40pm - 2:00pm

Product Development, Digital Manufacturing and Product Manufacturing Information: A Bibliometric and Systemic Analysis

Roberto Shigueru Sato, Milton Borsato, Jaqueline Sebastiany Iaksch, Ederson Carvalhar Fernandes, Kaio Vasconcelos Oliveira

UTFPR-Federal University of Technology - Parana (UTFPR)

Roberto Shigueru Sato, Milton Borsato

Abstract - This paper presents a bibliometric and systemic analysis on Product

Development, Digital Manufacturing, and Product Manufacturing Information. It portraits

state of the art, research opportunities, and trends, besides identifying existing gaps in

the studied subjects. The ProKnow-C (Knowledge Development Process –

Constructivist) was used to achieve the main objective of this study. The ProKnown-C is

aimed to support researchers to acquire knowledge and find relevant research

opportunities, leveraging the theoretical foundation of a scientific research. Thus, the

methodology used in this study encompasses: i) selection of the bibliographic portfolio

(BP); ii) bibliometric analysis of the BP; iii) systemic analysis of the BP; and iv) definition

of the research question and general and specific objectives. At the end of the first

stage, 18 articles, which were found to be in line with the research subject, made up the

BP. These articles were then subjected to quantitative analyzes to identify the most

relevant authors, journals and keywords. In the systemic analysis stage, the articles

were read and critical analyses were conducted, disclosing opportunities, trends, and

research gaps.

2:00pm - 2:20pm

Framework for Part Family Formation based on setup similarity coefficient

Ijlal Ahmed

Institute of Space Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan

The configurations of reconfigurable manufacturing system (RMS) evolved around market requirements and corresponding manufacturing capabilities, utilizing all available resources. Similar products / parts families are grouped together and require a specific manufacturing configuration in terms of setups and respective tools changes in RMS. The recognition of minimum number of setup changes in multi-parts production and its application for part family formation is an important step in RMS. The aim of research is to establish a methodology for an effective working of Reconfigurable Manufacturing System (RMS) / Cellular Manufacturing, which depends on formation of best set of product families. Methodology for part family formation is based on setup sequencing similarity coefficient which includes operation sequence. The methodology will focus on identification of feature groups, number of setups, selection of datum, operation sequence within a setup, setup sequence and similarity coefficient for parts.

The methodology for grouping products into families, takes into account the product modularity, commonality, compatibility, reusability and its demand and summaries the general similarities between pairs of products.

2:20pm - 2:40pm

Scheduling and sequencing of products in the batch-cyclic method

Najat Eid Al masarwah1, Gursel Suer2

1Ohio University, USA; 2Ohio University, USA

The batch-cyclic scheduling is one of the scheduling methods that has appeared in the literature recently to schedule the products in the flowshop cells at cellular manufacturing systems with shifting bottleneck machine and zero setup time. In this method, the mathematical model is used to schedule minimal product sets which are defined by using hasse diagram in each cell. The number of minimal product sets required to meet the demand for each product depends on several factors like the number of products and the demand volumes of the products in the cell. However, the mathematical model defines the processing time for the minimal product sets, but it isn’t able to define the sequence of products in each minimal product set. In this study, the simulation model is utilized to schedule the products in the cells beside the mathematical model to determine the sequence of products in system. The results show that the ability of the simulation model to define the sequence of products in the system and minimize the makespan of system compared to the mathematical model. In addition, the simulation modeling provides better results when the gap between processing times increases.

2:40pm - 3:00pm

Multi-Objective Fuzzy Flow Shop Scheduling Model in a Manufacturing Company

Ilkay Saracoglu1, Gursel A. Suer2

1Department of Industrial Engineering, Istanbul Gelisim University, Avcilar, 34215, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Ohio University, Athens, OH, 45701

This study proposes a solving methodology for multi-product parallel multi-stage cellular manufacturing company. The problem studied in this paper is a case study from a shoe manufacturing plant for producing the products according to their due dates. The manufacturing process investigated had three stages: a lasting stage, a rotary machine stage, and a finishing stage. The performance of system is measured by minimizing the total flow time and the makespan. Due to the complexity of the problem, the families of the products are decided according to the operations time to maximize the utilization in all cells with using Genetic Algorithm. Flow shop scheduling is then performed on each part family formed to determine the product sequence for each cell group by using multi-objective fuzzy mixed integer linear programming modeling. The two objectives are considered to minimize the total flow time and the makespan in order to generate non-dominated solution.

3:00pm - 3:20pm

Bi-objective Fuzzy Mathematical Models in a Labor-Intensive Cell

Azadeh Sadeghi, Roohollah Younes Sinaki, Gursel Suer

Ohio university, United States of America

In this paper, a bi-objective fuzzy model for a single product multi-period scheduling problem is discussed. The objectives of the fuzzy model are maximizing the customer satisfaction while minimizing the manpower level in a labor-intensive environment. Two options are considered for the proposed mathematical model. In the first one, the manpower level is allowed to vary from one period to the next. Therefore, the model selects the best manpower level for each period based on the customer demand in that period. In the second option, the manpower level is kept the same in each period. In this situation, the critical decision is to determine the optimal manpower configuration to avoid resources’ idle time and shortage simultaneously. For simplification, time-varying but deterministic demand values are considered. Similarly, processing times are also assumed to be deterministic. The fuzzy function used in our approach is the minimum bounded sum which is achieved by setting bound limits for each of the fuzzy parameters. In the experiment and results section, a small problem taken from a case study is solved considering both options and multiple bound limits.

1:40pm - 3:40pmMon-13.40-Pa: Production Planning, Scheduling and Control
Session Chair: Kyung-Hee Park
Session Chair: Robert Ojstersek
Park Room 
1:40pm - 2:00pm

Improved Heuristic Kalman Algorithm for Solving Multi-Objective Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem

Robert Ojstersek1, Hankun Zhang2, Liu Shifeng2, Borut Buchmeister1

1University of Maribor, Slovenia; 2Beijing Jiaotong University, China

The Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem (FJSSP), as a typical NP-hard optimization problem, has a significant value in manufacturing environment. This paper presents an improved estimation method of Multi-Objective Heuristic Kalman Algorithm (MOHKA) for solving Multi-Objective Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem (MOFJSSP). The optimization results of improved MOHKA for the MOFJSSP were implemented in real-world simulation model of flexible job shop production line, created in Simio. First, an improved mathematical model of MOHKA was proposed and implemented in MATLAB. Then we applied MOHKA to solve MOFJSSP with an improved real number encoding system, optimized for three benchmark optimization parameters, the maximum completion time of on all jobs (makespan), the total workload on all machine, the workload of the critical machine (the maximum workload among the machines). After improving and applying MOHKA on benchmarks, we have designed a production line model in Simio to test and simulate MOHKA on real-world example. The results presented in the paper show that the improved method of MOHKA for solving MOFJSSP can optimize multi-objective parameters especially for some of these selected cases in which our algorithm gives us high-quality results.

2:00pm - 2:20pm

An approach for improvement in local benchmarking of manufacturing lines by correlation of planning parameters

Syed Maaz Hasan, Muhammad Faisal Rana, Sajid Ullah Butt, Aamer Ahmad Baqai

College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan, Pakistan

Due to the fluctuating customer demands, scalable and reconfigurable manufacturing lines have become an indispensable requirement of today. Proper benchmarking of these manufacturing lines allows for improved productivity. Traditional benchmarking methods generally focus on machining cycles and operation variants and do not cater for the level of optimization of their process plans.The proposed methodology provides a practical layout that encompasses all the traditional benchmarking tools while catering for the basic planning level limitations of the system as well. This approach is a significant contribution toward improved benchmarking of manufacturing lines. This will not only help manufacturers in setting potential production targets but also aid in their timely completion.

2:20pm - 2:40pm

Evaluation of the influence of Human Personalities in Multi-objective Decision Making using An Island-based Genetic Algorithm

Gursel Suer, Arkopaul Sarkar

Ohio University, United States of America

In Smart Manufacturing and Industry 4.0, machine scheduling needs to be performed in a dynamically changing environment, where both objectives and performance measures required to be flexibly attuned to address the uncertain changes in the manufacturing condition (e.g. machine availability, machine load). In this study, we investigate the influence of human personality types in the selection of the right set of objectives and corresponding performance measures, modeled as fuzzy bounds. A multi-scheduler society is proposed based on the island-based genetic algorithm (IGA), where a team of schedulers of different personality types (reflected in their choice of fuzzy bound and evaluation function) forms a team, aiming to optimize a single objective. Two types of migrations are applied: an intra-team local solution migration strategy, based on the inter-personal behavior (driven by personality type) of individual agent in a team, and an inter-team global solution migration strategy, based on the optimization goal in demand for a particular shop-floor condition. Due to the brevity of this paper, no empirical evaluation is included but a detailed plan of experiments is given in the concluding section.

2:40pm - 3:00pm

Design of a manufacturing hub with modular automation units

Mahdi Bashiri, Alireza Golkarian, Erfaneh Nikzad

Shahed University, Iran, Islamic Republic of

Manufacturing processes are completed during the transportation in some of nowadays transportation. Complementary manufacturing processes may be done inside of a manufacturing hub. This strategy may decrease total transportation and manufacturing costs. By increasing of number of hubs, total establishment costs will be growth too. It is assumed that each manufacturing hub contains automation modules and the manufacturing hub capacity depends on its allocated modules. During different periods, demands may be changed, so located hubs should increase their capacities by adding new modules while some modules of other hubs may be inactive in some periods. In this paper, movable automation modules are proposed to be transferred among hubs, so a mathematical model is presented to determine location of manufacturing hubs and their automation modules. Finally, optimal modules transferring scheme during different periods are determined. The model performance is considered by some numerical examples.

3:00pm - 3:20pm

A Petri Net Model for Scalable Systems

Syed Maaz Hasan, Sajid Ullah Butt, Aamer Ahmed Baqai

College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan, Pakistan

Swift and sustainable change in production throughput is considered an invaluable attribute for manufacturing systems. Effective models for these scalable systems allows manufacturing enterprises to develop systems that provide upgradability as well as capability to maintain its current throughput. In order to achieve this, the system must be designed to support future expansions in the production capacity as and when needed by the market. Our aim is to provide a Petri-net model that minimizes ramp up requirements and simplifies the system transition after the change in throughput has been proposed. The proposed model is applied to an industrial case study to show the capability and advantage of replacing traditional approach with a more graphical one. The model can act as an aid for designers to plan and cater for the requirements of the emerging manufacturing market.

1:40pm - 3:40pmMon-13.40-Th: Sustainable Manufacturing and Engineering 1
Session Chair: Carlos Rodrigues Rocha
Session Chair: Usama Awan
Thurber Room 
1:40pm - 2:00pm

Understanding influential factors on implementing Social Sustainability Practices in Manufacturing Firms: An interpretive structural modelling (ISM) analysis

Usama Awan, Andrzej Kraslawski, Janne Huiskonen

LUT School of Business and Management, Lappeenranta University of Technology Lappeenranta, Finland

The purpose of this paper is to identify key factors that hinder successful implementation of social sustainability practices in manufacturing firm’s perspective and explain their nature, significance and inter-relationship using interpretive structural modelling (ISM). We have used a distinctive modelling approach to examine the contextual relationship among the key barriers and to rank them concerning their importance. Interpretative structural modelling (ISM) approach used to develop a hierarchical structure for analysing the interactions among the key barriers. ISM model highlights that lack involvement of operational staff into planning and lack of supportive institutional policies are the key barriers.Our findings indicate that lack of understanding customer needs and lack of managerial capabilities are important barriers to implementation and adaptation to new occupational health and safety practices (i.e. OHSAS 18001). This study has identified the lack of supportive institutional policies and lack of involvement of operational staff in planning decisions are the primary barriers in achieving social sustainability. This study contributes to understanding how influential factors interact with each other; affect the social sustainability of a firm. In doing so, it contributes to the understanding of health, occupational safety as a constitutive aspect of firm social sustainability.Our findings provide important insight to managers about factors affecting social sustainability during implementation.

2:00pm - 2:20pm

Analysis and ranking of drivers for eco-design implementation in the Finnish pulp and paper industry

Shqipe Buzuku1, Javier Farfan1, Tuomo Kässi1, Andrzej Kraslawski1,2

1Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland; 2Lodz University of Technology, Łódź, Poland

The study of eco-design practices has become an important aspect of sustainable manufacturing. Therefore, the identification and selection of key drivers for eco-design implementation is becoming essential. However, further research is needed in order to understand what are the key drivers that increase the efficiency of eco-design implementation and improve the company’s sustainability performance. The purpose of this study is to identify and evaluate the drivers for implementation of eco-design in the Finnish pulp and paper industry. The drivers are identified through literature research and a survey is conducted for their evaluation. Data analysis is performed by using ranking methodology in order to investigate and identify the key drivers for eco-design implementation practices in the Finnish pulp and paper industry. Driver for implementation “Management’s idea” and driver “Customer demand” for both continuation and implementation have the highest rank in all scenarios. In contrast, driver ‘One or few employees pushed idea’ for implementation and drivers ‘Personal quest for a better environment’ and ‘Increased employee satisfaction through environmental initiatives’ from for continuation have the lowest rank for the all scenarios. This study adds knowledge into the current literature of sustainable manufacturing and will provide insights to practitioners and decision makers in terms of eco-design implementation issues in an effective and efficient manner.

Keywords: Eco-design practices; drivers for eco-design efficiency; ranking methodology; sustainable manufacturing; pulp and paper industry

2:20pm - 2:40pm

Multi-commodity multimodal splitable supply chain network design for smart manufacturing via logistics hubs

Behnam Karimi, Mahdi Bashiri

Shahed university, Iran, Islamic Republic of

In this paper, a multi-commodity multimodal supply chain network is designed for smart manufacturing. Raw materials should be provided in manufacturing units with the lowest cost. Therefore, an efficient network should be equipped to transfer required materials in a proper time with the lowest cost. It is assumed that the commodities and raw materials should be transferred visa logistic hubs with the characteristic of splitting through different transportation modes. Capacity of hubs and all transportation modes is considered to be limited. So we try to find the optimal location of transferring hubs and other network elements to perform efficiently. A mixed integer linear programming model is proposed here to minimize the total logistics costs. Some numerical examples were considered to show the model validity as well as model effectiveness in manufacturing efficiency.

2:40pm - 3:00pm

Research on Edges Immunization Strategy for Complex Network Based on SIS-CA Model

Guanglin Wu, Chong Peng

Beihang University, China, People's Republic of

As we all know, risks can spread quickly and widely in real complex networks due to their small-world and scale-free features. The whole network may collapse under the circumstance of some nodes disturbed. It’s necessary to take the initiative to take good immunization strategies to prevent and avoid risks of the complex network. According to previous studies, existing immunization strategies usually focus on protection of nodes. These studies only pay attention to the importance of nodes but ignore the relationship between nodes, which will neglect some key links in real networks and lead to low immunization efficiency and high cost then.

In order to avoid above questions, this paper takes relationship between nodes into account and proposes a new method called targeted edges immunization strategy. The implement of this immunization strategy is to immune a certain number of edges from the perspective of protecting transmission path. For the purpose of better simulating the dynamic changes of risks propagation in real networks,combined with SIS model and Cellular Automation method, an SIS-CA (Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible Cellular Automation)propagation model which takes heterogeneity and time lag into consideration is provided. In this paper, SIS was chosen due to lack of no effective immunization strategies for enterprises in the enterprise collaboration network so that the enterprise can be protected from the interference of a risk infection forever. Moreover, the reason why we choose CA is because it is suitable for nonuniform networks, which is what SI, SIS, and SIR cannot do respectively. Besides, Cellular automaton is characterized by the fact the discrete state of the cell nodes at the next moment depends only on the historical state of this node and the current state of the neighbor nodes. It can better simulate real networks. Based on SIS-CA propagation model, feasibility of targeted edges immunization strategy was analyzed by comparison with targeted immunization strategy in WS(Watts-Strogatz) small-world network model, BA(Barabasi-Albert) scale-free network model, and an empirical study of aircraft manufacturing enterprises collaboration network. Results show that compared with conventional targeted immunization strategy, targeted edges immunization strategy obtains a better immunization efficacy via protecting fewer key edges.

3:00pm - 3:20pm

A novel method for analysis and optimization of electric energy consumption in manufacturing processes

Gislene Sailm Rodrigues1,2, João Carlos Espíndola Ferreira1, Carlos Rodrigues Rocha2

1Federal University of Santa Catarina; 2Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

The present work proposes a method for the analysis of the potential of reducing the consumption of electric energy in manufacturing processes. The method is based on discrete event simulation, and the execution is automated through an optimization algorithm in which different sets of values are used for the process decision variables, seeking to identify those sets that effectively lead to the reduction of electric energy consumption. A novelty of this method is the evaluation of the possible solutions obtained in the optimization process as a function of sustainability indicators in the economic, social and environmental aspects (triple bottom line), so that the optimal solutions to be adopted contribute to make the manufacturing process more sustainable. The text begins with the contextualization of the problem and the characterization of the potential users of the method, which are small and medium-sized companies whose tasks are still predominantly manual, but they cannot modify the plant significantly, due to either limited financial conditions or inherent characteristics of the manufacturing process. Subsequently, the activities that comprise the method are described, as well as their relationship. Next, the expected results and their evaluation in the context of the sustainability indicators are discussed. Finally, the future developments of this work are listed, such as the choice of computational tools for the modeling of the manufacturing process and the validation of the method through case studies in the food processing industry.

3:20pm - 3:40pm

Role of positional assembly accuracy in press forming of paperboard

Panu Tanninen, Sami Matthews, Antti Pesonen, Ville Leminen, Harri Eskelinen, Juha Varis

Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland

Press forming method is used to produce sustainable packages out of paperboard. Press forming equipment consists of the press unit that creates forming force and a changeable mould set that forms the paperboard to the desired shape. Successful production requires accurate positioning of each part of the mould set in relation to each other and to the press. This positioning of the mould set with the press unit is demanding because changing clearances in the press usually cause need for fine-tuning of the assembly after first trial runs.

This study investigates methods in positioning of mould parts and indications of misalignment in the end product, i.e. paperboard trays. Interpretation of these signs and defects has a vital role in determining the direction of misalignment and in the selection of correct adjustment method.

In practical tests, clearances between parts of the mould set were measured and resulted variances in produced trays were analysed. Response to mould adjustment was investigated correspondingly. Key design principles are proposed to improve assembly feasibility and to reduce production start-up time.

It was concluded that positioning features in design of the mould set should be emphasized. The need for controlled adjustment possibility has to be included to mould set due to deficits in the forming equipment related to manufacturing accuracy and wear.

3:40pm - 4:10pmCoffee break
4:10pm - 5:30pmMon-16.10-Ch: Engineering and Manufacturing Methods and Tools for Industry 4.0, 1
Session Chair: Paul-Eric Dossou
Session Chair: Ahlem Assila
Chittenden Room 
4:10pm - 4:30pm

Technological and Economic Evaluation of Conversion of Potential Flare Gas to Electricity in Nigeria

Emeka Nnanna Ojijiagwo1, Chike F Oduoza2, Nwabueze Emekwuru3

1University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom; 2University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom; 3Coventry University, United Kingdom

Globally, over 100 billion cubic metres (BCM) of gas is flared annually and linked to an annual emission of 400 million tons of carbon dioxide. In Nigeria the annual gas production is valued at 33.21 BCM, out of which more than 50% of this volume is wasted through flaring, thereby emitting about 35 million tons of carbon dioxide. About 14.94 BCM of gas produced in Nigeria is used for a variety of activities including electricity generation. Despite this scenario, Nigeria is still unable to generate and distribute enough electricity for the citizenry. This paper therefore proposes the option to divert gas which is normally flared to generate electricity in Nigeria while minimising the associated environmental impacts. The research methodology was based on interviewing top level managers in an electricity generation company, and gas Production Company, as well as the researchers’ site observations within the two case companies. Results from this study showed that electricity generation could be improved from its current daily production rate of 4358 MW to about 12000 MW. This improvement comes from the use of 18.27 BCM of gas currently flared annually in Nigeria, which could potentially be diverted as fuel for 50 units of gas turbine with power output of 150 MW each, with an increase in daily electricity generation of 7500 MW. The study also incorporates an economic analysis for the option to generate electricity as aforementioned.

Key Words: Gas to Electricity; Gas Turbines; Gas Flare Reduction; Nigeria

* Correspondent Author: Email (; Phone (+44)7803554757

4:30pm - 4:50pm

Impact of sustainability on the supply chain 4.0 performance

Paul-Eric Dossou

Icam, France

Globalisation is now acted everywhere in the world as an important and economic reason for company improvement. Indeed, the market and company organisation for satisfying customer expectations are nowadays international. It clear that company supply chain could be optimised for insuring customer satisfaction. Due to low cost of labour force in emerging countries, companies in developed countries have to reorganising themselves for being competitive. Industry 4.0 and supply chain 4.0 are the results of this crucial desire of better performance.

A company has to integrate new technological concepts and digitalisation on its supply chain in order to reduce cost and increase product quality. Despite the great and positive impact on large companies, these concepts are not already integrated into small and medium enterprises (SMEs). They considered industry 4.0 and supply chain 4.0 concepts as a dream, thus they are not ready to use them for increasing their performance.

The use of complex system modelling and multi-criteria analysis allow to define an adapted framework specially destined to SMEs improvement according to supply 4.0 concepts. In addition to technological and digital parameter, social, societal and environmental dimensions are integrated in this vision. Thus, in the approach presented, sustainability has a real impact on supply chain performance. It is not understandable to minimize its impact on supply chain 4.0.

This paper presents a model specially defined for SMEs integrating their expectations and concepts on supply chain of the future. A reference model is developed by using Case Based Reasoning and generalisation reasoning. Then, real data in the model elaboration for obtaining a result that could be exploited by any SME. The objective is to develop a tool for adapting SME performance according to supply chain 4.0 concepts but making them more sustainable. Multi-agent systems are used in the elaboration of this tool.

A detailed example is presented for illustrating concepts exposed above and defining perspectives.

4:50pm - 5:10pm

Towards improving the future of manufacturing through digital twin and augmented reality technologies

Souad Rabah2, Ahlem Assila1, Elio Khouri3, Florian Maier2,4, Fakhreddine Ababsa3, Valery Bourny2,5, Paul Maier4, Frédéric Mérienne3

1CESI, LINEACT, Reims, France; 2ESIEE-Amiens, France; 3Image Institue Ensam OarisTech school, France, France; 4EREM Company, France; 5UPJV, Laboratory of Innovative Technologies, Amiens, France


Today, the complex nature of architecture, engineering and industrial construction more and more increases the need for the use of new advanced technologies. In order to improve their construction and industrialization projects processes as well as the advanced visualization of their services, industries are moving towards the adoption of advanced technologies such as Digital Twin (DT) and Augmented Reality (AR). Those are both a part of top 10 strategic technologies in industry 4.0. Thus, it is important to highlight these new technologies through the development of new methods, tools and techniques that can improve the future of manufacturing. As a consequence, this work presents the first step towards the combination of these two technologies.

1) Digital twin and industrial strategic contribution

The Digital twin definition was invented in 2002 by Michael Grieves from the University of Michigan[1][2]. After that, different definitions were associated to DT in order to enlarge its contribution and to exhibit the importance of this concept in industrial development. Grieves describes the DT as a mirroring (or as a twin) of what exists in the real world and what exists in the virtual world. It contains all the information of the physical system. It is simply a representation of all disciplines and not only mechanical or geometrical part, but also an electronic representation, cabling, software, micro software, etc. not just the CAD model. In recent research, DT gets an extended definition in the context of IIoT, Industry 4.0 and the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)[3][4].

The first purpose of this paper is to improve these definitions by introducing a case study in research area. This work is conducted within the EROLLING2 project, it is a collaboration work between industrial (EREM, FIVES and GIMA) and academic (UPJV and ESIEE-Amiens engineering school) partners. The objective of this project is to develop a new method of monitoring and detection of forces and failures in rolling bearings in order to adapt this new monitoring technique to higher speeds motor [5]. For this purpose, we considered a bench test that represents the unique industrial prototype that which allows this specific type of tests.

The reason of studying the rolling bearings is that these components are one of the most important in the industrial of rotating machineries. Statistical studies show 40% and 50% of malfunction in rotating machineries is due to a dysfunction of bearings. Electrical monitoring of bearings is a new technique which allows to analyze the influence of the load on this component, but also to detect the presence of defects [5][6].

As a part of this work, in this paper, we introduce a DT of the bench test concept strategy. The design of DT will represent a virtual bench test that gives possibility to test different advanced control strategy while considering Electrical monitoring indicator.

2) Augmented reality in favor of industrial application

As the digital twin technology, Augmented Reality (AR) quickly aroused interest in different areas, especially in manufacturing [7]. Firstly developed in the 1990s, this technology consisted on integrating computer-generated objects with the real environment and allows real-time interactions [7].

In this context, the second purpose of this paper is to show how this technology could improve the future of manufacturing through a second case study conducted within the ARTBMA (Augmented Reality Technology for Building Management Assistance) project. It is another collaboration work between an industrial (ARCOM society) and academic (Image Institute ENSAM ParisTech school) patterns. The main objective of this project is to develop a new AR building management system enabling more advanced visualization of future industry services for building management support. More specifically, this system consists in helping real operators (technicians) in real time to configure and maintain terminal controllers in a building via augmented reality technology. This system involved two main components. The first one is the configuration guidance module which allows ensuring the connection of the terminal controller in real time via augmented reality with taking into account the appropriated diagram wiring. As a consequence, it allows generating the reference model. The second component is the maintenance guidance module which serves to help operators to maintain the wired controller in RA. Therefore, subjective and objective evaluations were conducted through real case studies in order to measure the effectiveness and efficiency of the developed system.

Both of the two projects are the first steps towards the integration of both digital twin and augmented reality technologies in order to propose new advanced methods to improve the future of the industry.

Content of the final paper

The introduction concerns the motivation and positioning of our study. The second section highlights the related works and theoretical background about DT and AR technologies. Then, we detail, in the third section, the two projects and we describe the obtained results. Last, the paper concludes and presents our future research works.


[1] Grieves, M., & Vickers, J. (2017). Digital twin: Mitigating unpredictable, undesirable emergent behavior in complex systems. In Transdisciplinary Perspectives on Complex Systems (pp. 85-113). Springer International Publishing.

[2] Negri, E., Fumagalli, L., & Macchi, M. (2017). A Review of the Roles of Digital Twin in CPS-based Production Systems. Procedia Manufacturing, 11, 939-948.

[3] Tao, F., Cheng, J., Qi, Q., Zhang, M., Zhang, H., & Sui, F. (2017). Digital twin-driven product design, manufacturing and service with big data. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 1-14.

[4] Banerjee, A., Dalal, R., & Joshi, K. P. (2017, June). Generating Digital Twin models using Knowledge Graphs for Industrial Production Lines. In Workshop on Industrial Knowledge Graphs, co-located with the 9th International ACM Web Science Conference 2017.

[5] Machado, C., Guessasma, M., Bourny, V., Bouzerar, R., Fortin, J., Baudon, S., & Bellenger, E. (2017). Modélisation numérique discrète innovante pour le monitoring électrique des roulements. S33-Tribologie.

[6] Machado, C., Baudon, S., Guessasma, M., Bourny, V., & Fortin, J. An original DEM bearing model with electromechanical coupling. the 7th International Conference on Computational Methods (ICCM2016), 3, pp.307-315.

[7] Rese, A., Baier, D., Geyer-Schulz, A., & Schreiber, S. (2017). How augmented reality apps are accepted by consumers: A comparative analysis using scales and opinions. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, ISSN: 0040-1625, Vol: 124, Page: 306-319.

5:10pm - 5:30pm

A digital twin for a micro manufacturing unit

Mika Lohtander1, Elodie Garcia1, Minna Lanz2, Jarno Kaakkunen1, Jarno Volotinen1, Juho Ratava1

1Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland; 2Tampere University of Technology, Finland

A Micro Manufacturing Unit (MMU) used in this particular study is a research environment to study how to construct a digital twin and what kind of information is needed to describe realistic behavior of the digital model of a micro manufacturing.

Micro-sized and micro-shaped products are used in many applications such as watches, phones, jewelry, and sometime even in kitchen ware. The products could be also customized in many cases. Customizable features might include for example color, subtitles, subtitle locations, and fonts but also technical object like micro antennas. Presented production concept whereby micro-sized shapes and pieces can be manufacture even by means of personal production.

Micro manufacturing unit and its digital twin consist of a system controller and network interface, safety functions and safety means, two layer palletizing system, manipulator to handle products and two work cells. To create proper imitative digital model from manufacturing environment five different manufacturing discipline must be taken in to consideration. These disciplines are 1) Materials – raw materias, waste materials, product material (properties and functions, 2) Machines (precision and capabilities), 3)Methods (efficiency and productivity), 4) Measurements (sensing and improvement), and 5) Modeling (prediction, optimization, and prevention). This paper discussing 5M model step 1 and 2 ie.raw material definition and how to model machine its capability.

4:10pm - 5:30pmMon-16.10-Ga: Workshop: Intelligent Planning, Part 2
Session Chair: Dusan Sormaz
Additional fee, only for workshop ticket holders.
Great Southern Gallery 

Tools and Applications of Intelligent Manufacturing Planning, Part 2

Dusan Sormaz

Ohio University, United States of America

This workshop will provide an overview of tools and methods for integrative manufacturing planning, which includes distributed (agent-based) applications for product development cycle: design, process planning, setup planning, manufacturing scheduling and FMS simulation. Product development cycle starts with a product design in CAD software and its CAD model transfer to other applications. The first application is feature mapping/feature recognition in order to convert part geometry into valid manufacturing features. Process planning starts with a process selection using rule based tools, proceeds to machine and tool determination, cost and time estimation, and completes with a process network generation and plan optimization through sequencing and clustering for necessary setups. Process plans can be optimized statically (before actual manufacturing) or dynamically (during the manufacturing execution). In the latter case, significant improvements are expected, as process plan network is optimized during execution, and the savings and performance are usually verified by discrete simulation of the manufacturing (FMS) process.

This workshop details procedures and methods for above mentioned tasks, and demonstrates their applicability on several real world examples in an agent based distributed planning system IMPlanner-MAS.

4:10pm - 5:30pmMon-16.10-Ne: Big Data Analytics in Manufacturing Systems
Session Chair: David Sly
Neil Room 
4:10pm - 4:30pm

A Convolutional Autoencoder Approach for Feature Extraction in Virtual Metrology

Marco Maggipinto, Chiara Masiero, Alessandro Beghi, Gian Antonio Susto

University of Padova, Italy

Exploiting the huge amount of data collected by industries is one of the main challenges of the so-called Big Data era. In this sense, Machine Learning has gained incredible attention in the scientific community, allowing to create statistical predictive models from historical process data in order to extract valuable information from them. In Semiconductor Manufacturing, one of the main data-driven applications extensively employed in production is Virtual Metrology where a costly or unmeasurable variable is estimated exploiting cheap and easy to obtain measures already available in the system. Often, the said measures present complex structures evolving in time or even in multiple dimensions. With such complex data, traditional Machine Learning algorithms present a relevant drawback: they require the extraction of relevant information from raw input data, called features. These are are often hand-engineered and based on specific domain knowledge. Moreover they may be difficult to scale and prone to information loss, affecting the effectiveness and maintainability of machine learning procedures. In this paper, we present a Deep Learning method for a semisupervised feature extraction based on Convolutional Autoencoders that is able to overcome the aforementioned problems. The proposed method will be tested on a real dataset for Etch rate estimation. An Optical Emission Spectrometry is used as input, where a complex bi-dimensional time and wavelength evolution is present.

4:30pm - 4:50pm

Reconciling the Bill of Materials to the Bill of Process for Configured Assemblies

David Sly

Proplanner, United States of America

For many companies with complicated assemblies, launching a substantially new product to the assembly line can be a stressful and costly event. At the root of this problem is the fact that there can be a large, to nearly infinite, number of possible product variations involving a similarly large possible number of processing tasks which often require custom tooling. The solution lies in being able to reconcile a configured manufactured Bill of Materials (mBOM) to a likewise configured Bill of Process (BOP or Routing). The BOP must then be mapped to the assembly line which means that the tooling and parts which must be located at each workstation prior to running the first job down the line. Finally, work instructions must be created and published to each operator position on this line which properly call out the correct parts and tools needed, and available, for each job that operator may need to perform. This paper will overview the methods and technology that were deployed at a large assembly plant to bring a new product introduction launch down from 6 weeks to 1 week.

4:10pm - 5:30pmMon-16.10-Pa: Modelling and Simulation of Manufacturing and Services 2
Session Chair: Nebojsa Ilija Jaksic
Session Chair: Muhammad Awais
Park Room 
4:10pm - 4:30pm

Evaluation of procurement scenarios in one-dimensional cutting stock problem with a random demand mix

Huseyin Sarper1, Nebojsa Ilija Jaksic2

1Old Dominion University, United States of America; 2Colorado State University - Pueblo, United States of America

In operations research, the one-dimensional cutting-stock problem describes the problem of cutting standard length stock material into various specified sizes while minimizing the material waste (the remnant or drop in manufacturing terms). This computationally complex and nondeterministic polynomial time hard (NP-hard) optimization problem has many manufacturing applications. One-dimensional cutting stock problems arise in many domains such as metal, paper, textile and wood. To solve it, the problem can be formulated as an integer linear model first, and then solved using a common optimizer software.

While some demand mix (e.g. fifteen 10’ cuts, thirty 15’ cuts, etc.) may be contractually fixed, in manufacturing, it is more common that the demand mix is not only random, but is also a correlated vector. Hence, procurement of the stock (e.g., 80’ steel rail) to be cut becomes a more complicated inventory problem when the demand mix is uncertain. A decision maker may choose to order more and risk excessive inventory and holding cost or choose to order less and risk shortage costs. This paper will report on possible solutions by applying stochastic programming to the one-dimensional cutting stock problem.

Thus, the cutting pattern on/off decisions and the patterns setting are taken ‘‘here and now” to hedge against all the future demand circumstances that may occur. When demands become known, decisions concerning the cutting patterns can be determined. The overall objective is to define the optimal cutting scheme such that the sum of cutting change costs and the expected raw material costs are minimized. The random vector of demand mix has a discrete probability distribution with a finite number of realizations or a continuous probability density function.

Two programs are used to create test problems. The first program identifies all possible patterns that can be cut out of a given stock length. The second program uses the pattern output of the first program as an input and creates a mathematical model (a text file) as an output. This text file is used as an input for the optimizer software LINGO.

4:30pm - 4:50pm

A computational and experimental analysis of crease behavior in press forming process

Muhammad Awais1, Panu Tanninen1, Teemu Leppänen2, Sami Matthews1, Juha Varis1, Kaj Backfolk1

1Lappeenranta University of Technology, School of Energy Systems, P.O. Box 20, Lappeenranta FI-53851, Finland; 2LUT Savo Sustainable Technologies, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Varkaus unit, Opiskelijankatu 3, Varkaus FI-78210, Finland

Press forming process is an important manufacturing process to produce paperboard tray packages. However, the during the press forming, sever deformation occurs at the intricate shapes that can cause localized strains and the fracture. The formability can be improved by the crease lines and patterns. Creases reduce the confine stiffness and assist the folding of the paperboard into the complex shapes. In this paper, the press forming process is modelled and simulated with the aid of finite element method. We focus especially on control parameters such as blank-holding force and the behavior of creases at different forming levels. A stress-based failure criterion is also designed and modelled to analyze the rupture. The FE-model consisted of the male die, female die, blank holder and paperboard blank. A commercial material with the grammage of 290 g/m2 and thickness of 0.353mm is used in this study. The paperboard is modelled as an elastoplastic material and Hill’s yield criterion with isotropic hardening is used to interpret the hardening behavior. The creases are modelled as hinge connector (one rotational degree of freedom). The failure criterion is implemented by the user-defined subroutine in Abaqus. The results obtained from FE analysis and forming trials show that the creases increase the convertibility of paperboard. It is concluded, that the developed model can be used to analyze the crease behavior, strain mapping and predict the failure limit which, in turn, enables the better understanding of the paperboard converting in the press forming process.

4:50pm - 5:10pm

Assessment Methodology for Competitive Manufacturing

Mohammad Munir Ahmad

Khwaja Fareed University of Engineering and Information Technology, Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan, Pakistan

Competition and market forces demand competitiveness performance from companies. Competitiveness is the ability of companies to produce goods and services of right quality at the right price at the right time. It means meeting and even exceeding the customer requirements more efficiently and effectively than their competitors. To achieve these goals, companies need to establish their competitiveness and identify the gaps which exist against the world class key performance indicators (KPI’s). The work presented in this paper provides the list of key performance indicators and also the methodology to establish these KPI’s. The online methodology allows companies to complete the questionnaire and work out the list of performance indicators. It allows to establish the gaps which exist in their current performance against the world class performance. Once the gaps are identified, the next step is to use the appropriate tools and practices in order to make improvements in KPI’s with their relative importance.

5:10pm - 5:30pm

Towards a hybrid multi-dimensional simulation approach for performance assessment of MTO and ETO manufacturing environments

Cátia Sofia Rodrigues Barbosa1,2, Américo Azevedo1,2

1Inesc Tec, Porto, Portugal; 2Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal

Despite the relevance of customization as a source of competitive advantage, the make-to-order (MTO)/engineer-to-order (ETO) manufacturing environments strategies have been neglected in the literature [1, 2]. MTO and ETO environments’ features include different customization levels, long lead times, highly variable product demand and specifications, and variable process durations [3]. Companies operating under these environments must deal with simultaneous customer oriented projects that compete for and share resources [4].

MTO/ETO environments are very challenging. While in the ETO manufacturing supply chain (SC) the decoupling point (used to distinguish the point in the value chain where a product is linked to a specific customer’s order) is located at the development stage, with the customers requiring products designed to satisfy their unique needs [1, 6], in MTO, the product development already exists at the order entry moment [5]. Usually both environments involve low production volumes and a high variety of products, with development activities playing a key role in adapting existing designs or creating completely new product designs [6], and serving as an order winner for MTO orders [5]. Given the interdependence of development and production activities, many engineering revisions are handled through manufacturing. As both development and production are fundamental activities to fulfil customer orders and required strict coordination [6], in this work we intend to simulate the influence of the development activities in the ETO/MTO SC performance, through the coordination between these activities and production activities in the value chain. Furthermore, we intend to assess the influence of different development and production key variables on the measured performance. Considering the above objectives, one main research question arise:

How does the interrelated development and production activities impact the MTO/ETO SC performance?

Given the different nature of the processes involved in the MTO/ETO SCs, we proposed a hybrid simulation model, using different simulation methods, including System Dynamics (SD), Discrete Event Simulation (DES) and Agent-based simulation (ABS). Simulation modelling often arises as an alternative for analysing complex manufacturing systems [7].

In the purposed approach, the different value chain actors are represented as agents, whose internal structures entail various decision and transformation processes. The development activities are simulated using SD and production and commissioning are simulated using DES. The planning and coordination activities are developed through different business rules (heuristics). The simulation model is applied to case of an advanced manufacturing company.

From this work it is possible to understand the impact that different development projects and production variables have on the manufacturing system performance. Variables as the engineering design workload, the design reuse, components in outsourcing and the complexity of the design at the project level, and the number of errors reported during production that require design revision, are investigated. Different manufacturing supply chain performance metrics are quantified, and the influence of the different variables assessed. Practical implications are derived from the simulation results by comparing multiple scenarios.

Despite the relevance that coordination between development and production activities has, simulation models considering both stages are absent. Apart from works addressing the dynamic simulation of new product development [8] and the engineering change management process [9], the engineering activities have been neglected and works addressing the simulation of development and production activities at the value chain level are not common. In this work we attempt to bridge this gap.


[1] J. Gosling and M. M. Naim, "Engineer-to-order supply chain management: A literature review and research agenda," International Journal of Production Economics, vol. 122, no. 2, pp. 741-754, 2009.

[2] L. C. Hendry, "Product customisation: an empirical study of competitive advantage and repeat business," International Journal of Production Research, vol. 48, no. 13, pp. 3845-3865, 2010.

[3] C. Hicks and P. M. Braiden, "Computer-aided production management issues in the engineer-to-order production of complex capital goods explored using a simulation approach," International Journal of Production Research, vol. 38, no. 18, pp. 4783-4810, 2000.

[4] A. Alfieri, T. Tolio, and M. Urgo, "A two-stage stochastic programming project scheduling approach to production planning," The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, journal article vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 279-290, 2012.

[5] O. Willner, D. Powell, A. Duchi, and P. Schönsleben, "Globally Distributed Engineering Processes: Making the Distinction between Engineer-to-order and Make-to-order," in Proceedings of the 47th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems, 2014, pp. 663 – 668.

[6] M. M. Henrique, S. J. Ola, and A. Erlend, "Analyzing the factors affecting coordination in engineer-to-order supply chain," International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 1005-1031, 2015.

[7] A. Borshchev and A. Filippov, "From System Dynamics and Discrete Event to Practical Agent Based Modeling: Reasons, Techniques, Tools," presented at the 22nd International Conference of the System Dynamics Society, Oxford, England, July 25 - 29, 2004.

[8] L. L. R. Rodrigues, N. Dharmaraj, and B. R. S. Rao, "System dynamics approach for change management in new product development," Management Research News, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 512-523, 2006.

[9] K. R. Reddi and Y. B. Moon, "Modelling engineering change management in a new product development supply chain," International Journal of Production Research, vol. 51, no. 17, pp. 5271-5291, 2013/09/01 2013.

4:10pm - 5:30pmMon-16.10-Th: Sustainable Manufacturing and Engineering 2
Session Chair: Yasangika Gayani Sandanayake
Session Chair: Monika Kosacka-Olejnik
Thurber Room 
4:10pm - 4:30pm

Role of moisture on press formed products made of Wood Plastic Composites

Sami Matthews, Amir Toghyani, Sami-Seppo Ovaska, Marko Hyvärinen, Panu Tanninen, Ville Leminen, Antti Pesonen, Harri Eskelinen, Juha Varis, Timo Kärki

Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland

Press forming offers feasible and sustainable post-production method to utilize the WPC materials made out of recycled raw materials. The effect of moisture has been validated in research of WPC material fabrication. However, inspection of the effect of moisture in post-processing of the material has been limited. This article investigates the effect of prolonged 28 days submersion of extruded WPC material sheets and press-formed products under water. The submersion results indicated differences in swelling of material sheets in comparison to press formed products of the same material. The press formed products were significantly less absorptive and their dimensional stability was better compared to material sheets. Based on these experimental observations guidelines are presented for product mould designers and material fabricators.

4:30pm - 4:50pm

Consumer Choice and Sustainable Development of Supply Chains

Zlatan Mujkic1, Ardian Qorri1, Andrzej Kraslawski1,2

1Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland; 2Technical University of Lodz, Poland

Globalization and ever-growing population in the World, inevitably leads to increased demand and consumer consumption. Therefore, to meet the increased demand such as meat products, meat farms are expanding and as consequence there is increased negative supply chain (SC) impacts on the environment. Thus, to reduce the environmental impacts and increase sustainability of SCs, reduced consumption of red meat and increased poultry, can lead to positive environmental impacts. The aim of this paper is to show to what extent can the impacts be reduced by changing the types of meat consumed. The methodology used in this work is mathematical modelling (optimization) with environmental impact is set as objective function. The obtained result shows the environmental impacts can be significantly reduced.

4:50pm - 5:10pm

Facilities Management Supply Chain: Functions, Flows and Relationships

Nishara Abdeen, Y. G. Sandanayake

Department of Building Economics, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka

Facilities Management (FM) is a dynamic profession, which supports core business functions by creating an effective and efficient built environment for clients, occupants and visitors, while maintaining interactions with parties such as FM consultants, in-house FM teams, contractors, suppliers and service providers. The diverse nature of FM functions necessitates effective supply chains. Hence, this paper aims to investigate the nature of FM supply chain along with upstream and downstream functions, various flows and different parties involved in FM supply chains. Data collection was limited to apparel sector. The study investigated the nature of FM supply chain with its activities, flows and parties involved in major FM functions such as maintenance, repair and refurbishment, energy and water management, building services and operations, health safety and hygiene and housekeeping. The research findings can be used as a guide by clients and FM teams for optimizing the performance of FM supply chain.

5:10pm - 5:30pm

How to determine reverse logistics process maturity profile: method proposal

Monika Kosacka - Olejnik, Karolina Werner -Lewandowska

Poznan Univeristy of Technology, Poland

This paper describes the structure of the maturity model enabling assessment of the reverse flow of material by using model in terms of the identification of the most appropriate reverse logistics processes. Despite the fact that reverse logistics processes are more important, there is still a lot of ambiguity related to the reverse logistics architecture, particularly in SMEs. The aim of this paper is to provide cross company valid maturity model for reverse logistics assessment. The method is elaborated based on the literature review and case studies. Authors present the application potential of the method in Polish companies.

6:00pm - 9:00pmDinner
Westin Grand Ballroom 
Date: Tuesday, 12/Jun/2018
8:00am - 8:30amRegistration
8:30am - 9:50amTue-08.30-Ch: Engineering and Manufacturing Methods and Tools for Industry 4.0, 2
Session Chair: David Sly
Session Chair: Pierre Eric Christian Johansson
Chittenden Room 
8:30am - 8:50am

Spatial Augmented Reality: an application for human work in smart manufacturing environment

Maura Mengoni, Silvia Ceccacci, Andrea Generosi, Alma Leopardi

Università Politecnica delle Marche, Italy

Spatial Augmented reality (SAR) represents a key technology for the development of smart manufacturing as it is barrier free, does not require the use of Head Mounted Displays or any other wearable devices and it fits most of the industrial constraints. The paper presents a novel SAR-based system to support the manual work in future smart factories. It conveys technical instructions during assembly, provides alerts in case of risks for humans’ safety and finally identifies which postures can bring to muscoloscheletric problems if repeated. Experiments with 30 participants demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed SAR-based system as compared LED monitor-based system and the overall achieved usability. The results proved that SAR technology improves the operators’ performance with respect to a LED monitor-based system and that users well accept it. We found that SAR is more effective for difficult tasks than for simple ones.

8:50am - 9:10am

Internet Based eKanban/eKitting involving suppliers

David Sly

Proplanner, United States of America

Kanban and Kitting systems have become prevalent over the past 20-30 years however most of these systems are manual or internal. In addition, some companies have struggled implementing these business practices due to internal employee gaming of these systems which has sometimes caused companies to abandon or lose trust in them.

This paper provides details on the development and deployment of a web-based environment at a company which involved suppliers, substantially reduced employee gaming and improved managerial oversight of inventory which led to over 50% reductions in line-side inventory and material handling labor while reducing part shortages by over 80%. The technical components of this system and how it was implemented will be reviewed.

9:10am - 9:30am

Enhancing Future Assembly Information Systems – Putting Theory into Practice

Pierre Eric Christian Johansson1,2, Lennart Malmsköld3, Åsa Fast-Berglund2, Lena Moestam1

1Volvo Group Trucks Operations; 2Chalmers University of Technology; 3University West

The manufacturing industry is in a changing state where technology advancements change the mindset of how manufacturing systems will function in the future. Industry 4.0 provides manufacturing companies with new methods for improved decision-making processes and dynamic process control. Despite this ambition, the manufacturing industry is far away from implementing this approach in practice. Assembly information systems will play an even more vital role enabling information transfer from product design to shop floor assembly in the future. To prepare the industry for these changes that are foreseen and for those that are yet to be discovered, a learning factory environment is vital. Such an environment is intended to support the industry during the development of assembly information systems. This paper presents an industrial demonstrator which incorporates well-known methods for improving assembly work stations with the perspective on assembly information systems. These methods are still not widely used in manual assembly intense manufacturing companies. This demonstrator illustrates how established theories can be practically used when designing future assembly information systems. The demonstrator will be used to validate functionalities and requirements for future assembly information systems.

9:30am - 9:50am

A mixed-reality digital set-up to support design for serviceability

Margherita Peruzzini1, Fabio Grandi1, Marcello Pellicciari1, Claudia Elisabetta Campanella2

1University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy; 2CNH Industrial, Italy

Design for serviceability begins with understanding the customer needs related to availability, reliability, accessibility and visibility, and aims at designing optimized systems where maintenance operations are easy and intuitive in order to reduce the mean time to repair (MTTR) and service costs. However, service actions are difficult to predict in front of a traditional CAD model. In this context, digital manufacturing tools and virtual simulation technologies can be validly used to create mixed digital environments where service tasks can be simulated in advance to support product design and improve maintenance actions. Furthermore, the use of human monitoring sensors can be used to detect the stressful conditions and to optimize the human tasks. The paper proposes a mixed reality (MR) set-up where operators are digitalized and monitored to analyse both physical and cognitive ergonomics. It is useful to predict the design criticalities and to improve the global system design. An industrial case study has been developed in collaboration with CNH Industrial to demonstrate how the proposed set-up is used to design for serviceability, on the basis of experimental evidence.

8:30am - 9:50amTue-08.30-Ga: Manufacturing Processes and Technology
Session Chair: Peter John Tiernan
Session Chair: Teresa Pereira
Great Southern Gallery 
8:30am - 8:50am

Development of Low-Cost High Temperature Testing Device

Peter John Tiernan, Gerard O'Connor

University of Limerick, Ireland

This paper outlines the design and operation of a low-cost high temperature tensile/compression testing machine. The machine is capable of testing metallic materials at temperatures of up to 1200oC. The machine consists of a standard tensile testing machine fitted with an environmental chamber and suitable auxiliary equipment to accommodate test specimens of various geometries. The computer-controlled machine was designed for ease of operation and flexibility for both research projects and undergraduate engineering students. A comprehensive programme of testing at a range of temperatures was conducted to validate the machine. The results of these tests, as well as the instrumentation used in the test machine are described in this paper.

8:50am - 9:10am

Interfacial Polymerization: A Facile Technique for Developing Solvent Resistant Nanofiltration (SRNF) Membrane

Fozia Tabasum Minhas1,2, Muhammad Iqbal Bhanger3

1Department of Chemistry, Khwaja Fareed University of Engineering and Information Technology (KFUEIT), 64200, Rahim Yar Khan; 2School of Chemical and Materials Engineering (SCME), National University of Sciences and Technology, H-12,44000, Islamabad, Pakistan; 3HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan

Interfacial polymerization (IP) is recently evolved method to fabricate thin film composite (TFC) membranes for desalination. Since top layer (thickness ~ 50 to 500 nm) of these membranes becomes cross linked and selective for retaining salt thereby allowing water to permeate. The active layer in TFC membranes can also be utilized in improving the efficiency of solvent resistant nanofiltration (SRNF) membranes.

Thus, in the present study, IP technique was adopted to prepare SRNF membrane by crosslinking piperazine (PIP) with trimesoyl chloride (TMC) on the surface of Celgard 2400 microfiltration membrane. The characterization of prepared SRNF membranes were accomplished via fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The characterization techniques report the presence of a homogenous and smooth polyamide active layer on the surface of supporting membrane. The molecular weight cutoff (MWCO) for these membranes was determined using dextrose, sucrose and raffinose solutions. The rejection level of sucrose and raffinose solutions is observed > 90% that indicates its MWCO come under 490 Da which confirms the nanofiltration category of the fabricated composite membranes. A high pressure operating, chemical resistant, and inexpensive NF Cell was designed and developed domestically for the permeation experiments of the membranes. The influence of different reaction conditions such as monomer concentration, residence time and curing temperature on membrane performance were evaluated. The rejection of bromo thymol blue (BTB) is augmented with increase in monomer concentration up to 1 wt% and after that becomes constant. However, the reverse trend is observed for ethanol flux. The similar behaviour of BTB rejection and ethanol flux are noticed in the study of residence time and curing temperatures. The high applied pressure accelerates the ethanol flux but BTB rejection is not much affected. The pore size estimation was carried out following Hagen–Poiseuille equation i.e. 0.59 nm.

Conclusively, it is inferred that PIP and TMC monomers system is appropriate to obtain homogenous, smooth and stable SRNF membranes with remarkable BTB rejection and ethanol flux.

9:10am - 9:30am

A codification system roadmap: case study in a metalworking company

Carlos Lemos, Maria Teresa R. Pereira, Luís Pinto Ferreira, Francisco J. G. Silva

ISEP - School of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto, Portugal

In a more and more challenging and competitive business world, decision-making and control of operational areas are key issues for the sustainability and resilience of industrial companies in the market, so that, production management and information management software are becoming mandatory. The information codification, namely products codification, is a subject that, without being the main purpose in everyday companies work, must be a subject that enables a proper functioning of everyday companies’ activity. This work proposes a conceptual model and a roadmap for internal product codification in a company working in metalworking industry. This guide shows good practices that highlight formal basic rules whose could add value to internal processes of the organization and so to provide a solid system where the company can rely on providing more time to its workers spend in other tasks.

9:30am - 9:50am

Implementing lean tools in the manufacturing process of small textile products

Patrícia Neves1, Francisco J. G. Silva1, Ana Gouveia2, Luís Pinto Ferreira1, Carina Pimentel3

1ISEP - School of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto, Portugal; 2MCS Textile Solutions, Lda.; 3GOVCOOP, DEGEIT, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal

The optimization of information flows and manufacturing processes are, in general, extremely important factors in the life of any company. The increasing customers’ requirement regarding quality assurance and processes traceability, requires the implementation of continuous improvement procedures, with a view to maintaining the company’s levels of competitiveness and satisfaction of its customers in terms of quality. It is therefore important that companies quickly self-adapt to this kind of reality and adopt policies of innovation in their products and standardization of its production processes, in order to allow rapid adaptation to the constant market changes.

The present work deals with these aspects, since it seeks to detect problems and find solutions that can be inserted into a program of continuous improvement through the application of methodologies with a view to standardization of processes, ensuring real profits in products typically with critical added-value. The new ideas were implemented and the results have been monitorized, showing a significant impact in the production process.

8:30am - 9:50amTue-08.30-Ne: Lean and Agile Manufacturing 2
Session Chair: Arkopaul Sarkar
Session Chair: Ronny Miguel Gouveia
Neil Room 
8:30am - 8:50am

Establishing standard methodology to improve the production rate of assembly lines used for low added-value products

Conceição Rosa, Francisco J. G. Silva, Luís Pinto Ferreira, Maria Teresa Pereira, Ronny Miguel Gouveia

ISEP - School of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto, Portugal

Global competitiveness, mainly in the automobile sector, requires constant focus on products and processes innovation in order to provide consumers with a large variety of products with excellent quality and at low cost. In line with this philosophy, the study of the work method and the inherent activities time measurement is a tool with great potential to assist in the optimization of the production process.

The present case study aims to optimize the production process on an assembly line devoted to command cables manufacture for automotive industry, in order to make closer the current line output with the one considered in the initial budget. Mapping all activities and measuring the time spent in each one, it is possible to survey the existing problems and inefficiencies, and using Lean tools and methodologies, find viable solutions that result in a significant increase of productivity.

The solutions implemented have allowed an increase in the line output at 43%, framing it in the values considered in budget, and a decrease of 31% in the assembly line use, which allow add new product references for the same assembly line. These gains are considerable for the company, so the same methodology standardized in order to be applied to other assembly lines.

8:50am - 9:10am

Development of hydraulic clamping tools for the machining of complex shape mechanical components

Cláudio Costa, Francisco J. G. Silva, Ronny M. Gouveia, Rui P. Martinho

ISEP - School of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto, Portugal

All market turns around quality and on a big portion of the industry, factors as productivity and profitability are crucial to the companies’ growth and sustainability. Processes need to be thought to ensure process repeatability and stability, particularly in machining through chipping. In order to allow this, it is necessary to perfectly define the process, machining sequence and to create physical and organizational tools that are less prone to error. Machine setup can encompass several machining errors which, sometimes, are difficult to detect using traditional control tools such as dimensional inspection. There are some cases in which the final product is faulty and it is difficult to trace the real root-causes. To avoid those errors, it is important to create tools of easily tuning which require minimal instruction to use and to create mechanisms which allow for flaw detection during production and not only during final test. This work will bring a chance to improve the machining processes of complex shape mechanical components presenting strong risks of failure during the machine setup, through the development of a clamping tool which will make the setup easier.

9:10am - 9:30am

The Improvement of an APEX Machine involved in the Tire Manufacturing Process

Rui F. L. Santos, Francisco J. G. Silva, Ronny M. Gouveia, Raul D. S. G. Campilho, Maria Teresa R. Pereira, Luís C. P. Ferreira

ISEP - School of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto, Portugal

Over the years, there has been a huge expansion regarding the automotive component’s industry and its consequent innovation that evolves together with automation and robotics. Therefore, to ensure the component’s quality as well as the quality of the whole production process, it is crucial to increase competitiveness in the sector. Since quality is a key feature of this industry, all manufacturers and suppliers are scrutinized by systematic audits in order to achieve constant improvements.

This work was developed in a multinational industry, focusing on tires production for the automotive sector. Tires present a complex production process, which crosses the mixing, preparation, construction, vulcanization and inspection departments, all of them strongly predisposed to process improvement. In one of these departments (Preparation - Apex machines) problems related to a large number of failures in pneumatic systems were found, resulting in its difficult control, both in terms of speed and positioning. Some lacks of automation were delaying certain processes, increasing setup times and leading to higher production costs.

In order to achieve higher quality, reliability and accuracy, a higher level of automation was applied to this kind of machines, allowing as well improve the workplace safety by the use of 5S methodology and promoting as well a safety upgrade on the equipment.

9:30am - 9:50am

The way to a simple and environment-friendly production design of complex foam parts – innovative solutions for the polyurethane manufacturing industry

Paul Heisler, Sascha Dominik Gick, Joerg Franke

Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany

The production of foam parts is an essential part of the automobile production process. Whether for the production of seats, bumpers or pillar foams, polyurethane-based foams combine high strength with ideal damping properties at the same time. In particular, the development of a sustainable production of complex foam parts with additional insert elements is a challenging test for the industry. In the recent years, the research effort has been focused on the development of novel coating systems for automated production systems. For this reason, the leading aim of this work was to optimize the manual foaming process for complex foam parts. Particular attention is paid to the reduction of release agent as well as the improvement of the production steps to reorganize the production efficiency in line with the lean production philosophy. According to the TRIZ methodology, three concepts were developed to solve this issue. To achieve a release agent reduction, an innovative system design for a laser optical release agent system was designed in addition to a cooperatively and fully automatic operating coating robot. This automation solution can be fitted flexibly into the system landscape. However, the main topic of this work was the examination of the PP-based moulds as preferred manufacturing concept. The PP-based mould describes the release agent-free production of precision foam parts. The scope contains the combination of polypropylene plastic films with a special CRP heating system which presents a new approach for the polyurethane processing industry.

8:30am - 9:50amTue-08.30-Pa: Manufacturing Systems Design and Analysis 1
Session Chair: Francisco J. G. Silva
Session Chair: Gustavo Filipe Lopes Correia Pinto
Park Room 
8:30am - 8:50am

Experimental and numerical analysis of scarf aluminium adhesive joints

Daniel F. O. Silva1, Raul D. S. G. Campilho1,2, Francisco J. G. Silva1, Ulisses T. F. Carvalho1

1ISEP - School of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto, Portugal; 2INEGI - Polo FEUP, Porto, Portugal

With the increasing use of structures with adhesive bonds at the industrial level, several authors in the last decades have been conducting studies concerning the behaviour and strength of adhesive joints. Between the available numerical prediction methods, Cohesive Damage Models, which have shown good results, are particularly relevant. This work consists of a validation of cohesive laws in traction and shear, estimated by the application of the direct method, in the strength prediction of joints under a mixed-mode loading. In this context, scarf joints with different scarf angles () and adhesives of different ductility were tested. Pure-mode cohesive laws served as the basis for the creation of simplified triangular, trapezoidal and exponential laws that were tested for each of the adhesives. Their validation was accomplished by comparing the numerical predictions with the experimental results. An analysis of peel and shear stresses was also performed in the adhesive layer in order to understand the influence of stresses on the joints’ strength. The use of the direct method allowed to obtain very precise strength predictions, indicating the cohesive law shape more suitable for each adhesive set/joint geometry. Furthermore, for the geometric and material conditions considered, this study has led to the conclusion that no significant errors are made in the choice of a less appropriate law.

8:50am - 9:10am

Development of a numerical methodology for strength prediction of weld-bonded joints

Fernando J. S. Almeida1, Raul D. S. G. Campilho1,2, Francisco J. G. Silva1, Gustavo P. Marques1

1ISEP - School of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto, Portugal; 2INEGI - Polo FEUP, Porto, Portugal

The need of joining methods that best meet the design requirements has led to the increased use of adhesive joints at the expense of the traditional methods such as welding, fastening and riveting. Hybrid weld-bonded joints are obtained by combining adhesive bonding with a welded joint, being spot-welding the most widely used welding technique in the manufacture of such joints. The synergy between adhesive bonding and spot-welding provides competitive advantages over adhesive bonding, such as superior strength and stiffness, and higher resistance to peeling and fatigue. In the present work, an experimental and numerical study of T-peel welded, adhesive and hybrid (adhesive-welded) joints is presented under peeling loads. An analysis of the experimental values and a comparison of these values with Finite Element Method (FEM) results in the ABAQUS® software was carried out, which included a stress analysis in the adhesive layer and joint strength prediction by Cohesive Zone Models (CZM). The good agreement between the experimental and numerical results enabled the validation of CZM to predict the strength of adhesive and hybrid T-peel joints. The present work is a basis for further application in the design of this type of joints, with the benefits in reducing the design time and ease of optimization.

9:10am - 9:30am

Comparison of different adhesively-bonded joint configurations for mechanical structures

Nelson G. C. Barbosa1, Raul D. S. G. Campilho1,2, Francisco J. G. Silva1, Raul D. F. Moreira1

1ISEP - School of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto, Portugal; 2INEGI - Polo FEUP, Porto, Portugal

There are several factors that influence the behaviour of an adhesive joint, and there is a need to evaluate some of these main factors, namely the type of adhesive (brittle, ductile or a compromise between the two properties) and joint geometry as a function of the overlap length (L0). The main objectives of this work are to carry out a comparative study involving several joint geometries using various adhesives with different characteristics and to check which type of adhesive is most suitable for a particular joint geometry. For this purpose, single-lap joints (SLJ), double-lap joints (DLJ), stepped joints and scarf joints were chosen for testing with three adhesives. The experimental results are compared with numerical results obtained using ABAQUS® software using an integrated cohesive zone modelling (CZM) module. In the CZM study the SDEG (stiffness degradation) damage variable as a function of L0 is analysed, which allows to observe the degradation of the adhesive layer from the beginning of load application until complete failure, with further discussion of the results. With this work, it was concluded that the optimal joint configuration depends significantly on the type of adhesive being used, such that less resistant and ductile adhesives are more suitable for joint geometries that exhibit large stress variations, while stronger but more brittle adhesives are recommended for joint geometries with more uniform stresses.

9:30am - 9:50am

Improvement of the Statistical Process Control Certainty in an Automotive Manufacturing Unit

Radu Godina1, Carina Pimentel2, Francisco J. G. Silva3, João C. O. Matias1,2

1C-MAST, University of Beira Interior, Portugal; 2GOVCOPP, DEGEIT, University of Aveiro, Portugal; 3ISEP - School of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto

To control a process means to make adjustments in order to improve the performance, identify and fix anomalies. The statistical process control (SPC) is a solution developed to easily collect and analyze data, allowing performance monitoring as well as achieving sustainable improvements in quality which in turn allows increasing the profitability. The SPC makes it possible to monitor the process, identifying special causes of variation and defining the corresponding corrective actions. The SPC enables the monitoring of the characteristics of interest, ensuring that they will remain within pre-established limits and indicating when corrective and improvement actions should be taken. The focus of this study is to analyze the SPC control chart of an industrial unit operating in the automotive industry. The normality test used at this manufacturing unit is Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S). This test shows that if the data follows a normal distribution then the SPC is valid. However, by increasing the accuracy of the normality test a starkly different result could be obtained. Thus, in this paper a comparison between these two normality tests is made and the results and the consequences of the Anderson-Darling test are analyzed and discussed. Full results, detailed analysis and further conclusions will be published in the full paper.

8:30am - 9:50amTue-08.30-Th: Sustainable Manufacturing and Engineering 3
Session Chair: Fazleena Badurdeen
Session Chair: Paul-Eric Dossou
Thurber Room 
8:30am - 8:50am

Combined effect of blank holding force and forming force on the quality of press-formed paperboard trays

Ville Leminen, Sami Matthews, Antti Pesonen, Panu Tanninen, Juha Varis

Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland

Press forming is a method to produce packaging products, such as trays or plates from sustainable materials made from renewable resources, for example paperboard. The press forming tools consist of three main tools, the male mould, the female mould and the blank holder. The blank holding force controls the folding of the tray blank into the mould cavity. In the forming process, the tray flange is flattened by applying high force on the material between the female mould and the blank holder.

This paper focuses on the combined effect of blank holding force and forming force on the quality of the formed products. A series of converting tests was performed and the products were analysed to see the effect of the parameters. The results show that these forces have a high impact on the quality of the formed product, and can act as a guideline to define the required force in press forming machinery design.

8:50am - 9:10am

Sustainable Logistics and mobility in cities: the example of Paris South-East Area

Charles-Henri Sullet, Paul-Eric Dossou

Icam, France

According to COP21, COP22 & COP23 recommendations, and European commission policy in terms of mobility for growth and sustainable development, many experiences are tested in Europe for reducing road transportation, congestions, CO2 emission, and increasing people quality of life, environment protection, and company performance by proposing alternative solutions (rail, waterborne, bike…) in urban logistics and mobility.

This paper presents collaborative concepts developed for reducing road transportation and congestion and improving urban logistics and mobility by implementing alternative solutions (combination of road with waterborne and rail) in a region.

A simulation tool is used for describing actual situation of a city. Then this model is analyzed and scenarios containing alternative solutions are proposed. The specifications of a software tool being developed for implementing co-creative and co-innovative solutions on a city or region is presented. This tool will be deployed in website, mobile and public terminal (Human/Machine Interface) for capitalizing citizens opinions and propositions for improving their city.

An illustration is proposed by explaining in detail how they are being used in the area of GPS (Grand Paris Sud), the south-east of Paris region. The “Grand Paris Sud” region, is composed of 24 small cities with 342 000 peoples and 19 000 companies. This conglomeration is attractive for logistic companies, due to its proximity with Paris, Orly Airport (second airport of Paris) and highways.

9:10am - 9:30am

Towards Developing Sustainable Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems

Aihua Huang, Fazleena Badurdeen, I.S. Jawahir

Institute for Sustainable Manufacturing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY, United States of America

In order to quickly respond to the market changes, Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems (RMS) must be applied for the manufacturing activities. Meanwhile, to promote sustainable manufacturing performance, three pillars of sustainability, the total lifecycle emphasis, 6R (reduce, reuse, recycle, recover, redesign, remanufacture) concept should be considered simultaneously to evaluate the manufacturing activities. However, very few literature explore the RMS with the consideration of these aspects. Therefore, there is a need to develop a method to improve the RMS to be sustainable. This work aims to evaluate how RMS influences sustainable manufacturing performance using existing sustainable manufacturing metrics. RMS has six key characteristics including Modularity, Integrability, Customization, Scalability, Convertibility, and Diagnosibility. As an initial step, ‘convertibility’ is selected to evaluate sustainable manufacturing performance as RMS convertibility changes. Convertibility is quantified by considering configuration convertibility, machine convertibility, and material handling device convertibility from the RMS perspective. In addition, RMS performance with different convertibility levels is also evaluated by using the sustainable manufacturing metrics. All these assessment will be demonstrated using a numerical example to compare the results obtained. The comparison of these results will help to assess how the sustainable manufacturing performance changes for RMS as convertibility changes. It can also help to improve RMS sustainable manufacturing performance through better design for convertibility.

9:30am - 9:50am

Designing a novel feeding system for CNC turning machines

Gabriel B. Silva, Francisco J. G. Silva, Raul D. S. G. Campilho, Ronny M. Gouveia

ISEP - School of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto, Portugal

Machining is a manufacturing process widely used in industry that directly impacts on technological development. The machining processes are carried out by machine tools, which may have manual, automatic or CNC operation. The automatic machines are suitable for the production of parts with complex geometry and/or when it is necessary to produce parts in a large scale.

In cases where there is a need to produce parts in large amounts, typically fully automatic CNC machines and processes are used, which increases the production capacity of the companies. These machines require equipment capable of feeding the raw material to the inside of the machine tools. For that, throughout this work is developed the mechanical design of a bar feeder machine for CNC turning centers, that will operate with low cycle time and can be operated safely and in a quickly way by the operator.

10:00am - 10:50amTue-10.00-Gb: Keynote 3: Robotics as Assistive Technology for Humans: Design of Robot as Tool for Treatment of Children with Developmental Disorders
Session Chair: Dusan Sormaz
Speaker: Branislav Borovac, University of Novi Sad, Serbia
Westin Grand Ballroom 

Robotics as Assistive Technology for Humans: Design of Robot as Tool for Treatment of Children with Developmental Disorders

Branisalv Borovac

University of Novi Sad

Therapy in children with developmental disorders should start as early as possible, soon after noticing certain signs of the disorder. This is reason why majority of such patients are very young kids. Treatment procedures are usually time-consuming, tiring, and exhaustive to both, the child and the parents. It often happens that the fall of motivation, tiredness, and monotony, lead to a slower achievement of desired treatment goals. The use of robots would establish the child-robot interaction that would contribute to the change of the environment, rising of motivation and establishing continual stimulation of the treatment. Thus, the main goal of such means of assistive technology is to ensure long-lasting motivation of the child with the objective of facilitating treatment procedures. This will be possible to realize only if the robot is capable to arouse and maintain the vivid inter¬est of the child. The first requirement in designing such robot to be fulfilled is robot’s is attractiveness to child. Child should like it. To define robot’s appearance, psychologists perform test¬ing of kids. The second requirement was to define such robot structure to enable exercises demonstration. This was basis for artists to model it i.e. to define its structure, shape and color. In addition, robot should be able to perform appropriate verbal communication with patient and therapist to attract and keep child’s attention.

First testing in hospital already has been done and initial results are very encouraging.

10:50am - 11:20amCoffee break
11:20am - 12:40pmTue-11.20-Gb: Panel: Emerging Methods for Advanced Manufacturing Systems
Session Chair: Gursel Suer
Session Chair: Dusan Sormaz
Speakers: Cihan Dagli, Djerdj Horvat, Nenad Ivezic, Lihui Wang
Westin Grand Ballroom 

Emerging Methods for Advanced Manufacturing Systems

Cihan Dagli1, Djerdj Horvat3, Nenad Ivezic4, Lihui Wang2

1MST, USA; 2KTH SE, Sweden; 3Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI DE, Germany; 4NIST

In this panel, participants will briefly introduce Industry 4.0, digital, cyber and cloud manufacturing, smart factories and internet of things. Later, they will discuss their impact on the advanced manufacturing systems. Participants are also expected to share their opinion and/or experience in implementation challenges of these approaches in the industry both in the developed countries and developing countries. Finally, there will be discussions on how to incorporate these methods into various engineering curricula. We also expect audience participation in this panel at the end with questions and comments.

12:40pm - 1:40pmLunch break
1:40pm - 3:40pmTue-13.40-Ch: Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in Manufacturing
Session Chair: Yi-Chi Wang
Session Chair: Sadegh Mirshekarian
Chittenden Room 
1:40pm - 2:00pm

Conceptual design of an intelligent ultrasonic crimping process using machine learning algorithms

Michael Weigelt, Andreas Mayr, Johannes Seefried, Paul Heisler, Jörg Franke

Institute for Factory Automation and Production Systems, Germany

Machine learning (ML) is a key technology in smart manufacturing. In contrast to common physical simulations, ML algorithms offer insight into complex processes without requiring in-depth domain knowledge. Within the electric drives production, innovative contacting processes such as the ultrasonic crimping are difficult to model and control. Thus, this paper transfers the potential of ML to the abovementioned manufacturing process and presents a conceptual design of an intelligent ultrasonic crimping process. After a brief introduction to the principles of the ultrasonic crimping technology, the aspired architecture of the intelligent ultrasonic crimping system is shown. This particularly includes sophisticated measurement systems which record the relevant process parameters and quality features of the product. Based on that, two beneficial applications of ML-algorithms in ultrasonic crimping are identified: quality management and process control. With respect to quality management, ML-based models can be used as quality estimators by observing the process parameters of each contacting cycle. This also includes visual and acoustic features. In addition, applying ML in process control is expected to result in a higher adaptability to changing conditions, thus paving the way for a self-optimizing contacting system. For the validation of the proposed architecture, relevant ML algorithms for the prediction of the connection quality using visual features are selected. Thereby, special attention is given to the comparison of the conventional deterministic with the innovative ML-based approach. As a conclusion, the benefits and challenges of such an intelligent ultrasonic crimping system are discussed and an outlook on future research is given.

2:00pm - 2:20pm

Recurrent Neural Network-Based Stencil Cleaning Cycle Predictive Modeling

Haifeng Wang, Tian He, Sang Won Yoon

Binghamton University, United States of America

This paper presents a real-time predictive approach to improve solder paste stencil printing cycle decision making process in surface mount assembly lines. Stencil cleaning is a critical process that influences the quality and efficiency of printing circuit board. Stencil cleaning operation depends on various process variables such as printing speed, printing pressure, and aperture shapes. The objective of this research is to help efficiently decide stencil printing cleaning cycle by applying data-driven predictive methods. To predict the printed circuit board quality level, a recurrent neural network (RNN) is applied to obtain the printing performance for the different cleaning aging. In the prediction model, not only the previous printing performance statuses are included, but also the printing settings are used to enhance the RNN learning. The model is tested using data collected from an actual solder paste stencil printing line. Based on the predicted printing performance level, the model can help automatically identify the possible cleaning cycle in practice. The results indicate that the proposed model architecture can predictively provide accurate solder paste printing process information to decision makers and increase the quality of the stencil printing process.

2:20pm - 2:40pm

Online Control of Stencil Printing Parameters Using Reinforcement Learning Approach

Nourma Khader, Sang Won Yoon

Binghamton University, United States of America

This research proposes a novel approach to control the stencil printing process (SPP) parameters online in surface mount assembly (SMA) of printed circuit boards (PCBs). Several external variables induce variations in stencil printing quality including environment conditions, operator faults, and others. This research aims to build an optimal adaptive controller that captures these variations and consequently adjusts the controllable and significant printing parameters to enhance the solder paste volume transfer efficiency (TE) during actual production run. Q-learning which is a reinforcement learning (RL) approach is used to control the main printing parameters (printing speed and pressure, and the separation speed) online. The results show that Q-learning converges to the optimal policy for SPP problem and the optimal set of actions for different states are retrieved from the Q-table. Moreover, the controller is capable to reach to the terminal state for several testing examples with taking few actions.

2:40pm - 3:00pm

Machine Learning Approaches to Learning Heuristics for Combinatorial Optimization Problems

Sadegh Mirshekarian, Dusan Sormaz

Ohio University, United States of America

We examine the various ways of applying machine learning to enhance heuristic solutions for usually-NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems (COPs), by reviewing available literature and investigating possible avenues for improvement. A general framework is then developed that would enable the learned heuristic approach on a wide range of problems. The framework consists of a generalization of solution algorithms to COPs, along with a machine learning architecture and training procedure that would inject intelligence via learning to these generalized solution algorithms (GSAs). A GSA in our framework is an assembly of n agents working in parallel, generating the solution to a given problem one step at a time either by improving a known solution or by constructing one from scratch. The generated partial solution is then implemented in a simulated or real system that represents the environment, with state changes being fed back to the n agents. In our proposed solution, intelligence can be injected into the agents individually or in groups, via learning from the correlation of their solution decisions with a final objective value. Finally, we show how to use the framework on two example problems; the Job-Shop Scheduling Problem and the path-finding problem.

3:00pm - 3:20pm

A Direct-solution Fuzzy Collaborative Intelligence Approach for Yield Forecasting in Semiconductor Manufacturing

Yi-Chi Wang1, Toly Chen2

1Department of Industrial Engineering and Systems Management, Feng Chia University, Taiwan; 2Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan

Yield forecasting is a critical task to every semiconductor manufacturer. However, the existing methods for yield forecasting often deal with the logarithmic or log-sigmoid value, rather than the original value, of yield. To resolve this problem, in this study, the fuzzy collaborative intelligence (FCI) method proposed by Chen and Lin (2008) is modified, so that it can consider the original value of yield directly. The modified FCI method is called the direct-solution (DS)-FCI approach. The effectiveness of the DS-FCI approach was validated with a real case. The experimental results showed that the DS-FCI approach outperformed Chen and Lin’s FCI method in improving the forecasting accuracy and precision.

1:40pm - 3:40pmTue-13.40-Ga: Workshop, Cells and Assembly Lines, Part 1
Session Chair: Gursel Suer
Additional fee, only for workshop ticket holders.
Great Southern Gallery 

Workshop on flexibility in production and assembly lines, part 1

Gursel Suer

Ohio University, United States of America

In this workshop, the need for flexibility in production lines is introduced first. Then, cellular design for manufactured parts are discussed with examples. Later, layered cellular design that brings a high level of flexibility and efficiency to manufacturing system is illustrated. In the second part of the workshop, manufacturing cells and assembly lines are integrated. In the last segment of the workshop, assembly line balancing, parallel stations, parallel assembly lines, assembly lines with by-pass stations, U-shaped assembly lines, linked assembly cells and mixed-model sequencing issues are addressed.

1:40pm - 3:40pmTue-13.40-Ne: Lean and Agile Manufacturing 3
Session Chair: Nemanja Sremcev
Session Chair: Sameh M Saad
Neil Room 
1:40pm - 2:00pm

A novel rework costing methodology applied on a bus manufacturing company

Hélio Santos, Maria Teresa R. Pereira, Francisco J. G. Silva, Luís Pinto Ferreira

ISEP - School of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto, Portugal

This paper focuses in the quality costs analysis in a bus manufacturing company. The main goal was to improve the quality costs indicator, by providing procedures to evaluate the failure cost within the productive process. Kaizen-lean principles were used as methodology. Quality cost analysis was made based on literature review and in a standard in quality cost. Process analysis was performed based on PDCA cycle which started by perfectly identifying the costs related to the lacks of quality and their sources. Consequently, it was possible to know how the rework costs can be measured. A database was created to scorecard the identified quality costs. Hence, it was possible to develop associated KPI indicators to support decision making and to reduce internal processes’ wastes. A graphic indicator (KPI) was developed to show the overall balance between quality costs and non-quality costs. The main contribution of this paper is a novel conceptual model developed for quality cost analysis.

2:00pm - 2:20pm

Improving teaching and learning process by applying Lean thinking

Nemanja Sremcev1, Milovan Lazarevic1, Branislava Krainovic3, Jovan Mandic2, Milovan Medojevic1

1Faculty of Technical Sciences, Serbia; 2Faculty of Education, Sombor, Serbia; 3HUTCHINSON, Ruma, Serbia

Lean principles have been used widely in manufacturing industries with less interest by practitioners to transfer Lean thinking to educational sector. The aim of present paper is to emphasize the importance of applying Lean principles in Higher education institutions. Removing waste in organizing, preparing and performing teaching process in laboratory environment by adding value to student learning was presented using 5S methodology. The results show improvements in storage space, transportation facilities and workplaces for simulating production of a water pump in laboratory. Researchers who are willing to improve their activities within the laboratory and teaching process can simply follow the steps presented in this paper and thus make research and educational work more efficient and effective. Lean within educational sector can benefit both University personnel and student learning process.

2:20pm - 2:40pm

Agility Capability Maturity Framework

Agnieszka Stachowiak, Joanna Oleśków-Szłapka

Poznan University of Technology, Poland

The goal of the paper is to present the framework of Agility Capability Maturity Model (ACMM). The ACMM is developed to support companies straiving for agility, help them in identifying gaps within their capabilities and finding the way to fill it in, providing a selection of tools and methods supporting agility. Hence, the model is a both a diagnostic tool and the approach towards continuous improvement and development. The conceptual approach is to be supported by the methodology of ACMM assessment and an expert system dedicated to selection of the tools and methods best resposing to companies' needs, requirements and limitations. The case study on implementation of the methodology is to be presented as well.

2:40pm - 3:00pm

Applying SMED methodology in cork stoppers production

Eduardo Alberto Cunha e Sousa1, Francisco J. G. Silva1, Luís Pinto Ferreira1, Maria Teresa Pereira1, Ronny Miguel Gouveia1, R. P. Silva2

1ISEP - School of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto, Portugal; 2Cork Supply Portugal, S.A., Rua Nova do Fial, 102, Apartado 19, Sao Paio de Oleiros 4536-907, Portugal

Organizations are increasingly required to have a high level of quality and flexibility in production. In order to remain in the market and become competitive, the working methods practiced must be reliable and efficient. The present project sought the improvement in the reference change of an equipment of the cork industry, through the application of Lean methods. The equipment under study performs the union of a cork stopper to a capsule, which is done by gluing it with hot-melt glue. Since the variety of products produced is huge, this almost makes the changeover activity a frequency. The method followed in this work was the study and collection of information on the Lean production philosophy and its application in the cork industry. The working conditions of the assembly machine were also analyzed, searching for improvement opportunities. Thus, it was elaborated the Value Stream Mapping (VSM) in order to perceive which are the operations that really add value to the product. The SMED (Single Minute of Exchange of Die) methodology was applied in way to reduce the downtime caused by tool changes, and a reduction of 43% in total changeover time was obtained. To monitor the entire development of the SMED project, it was also created an A3 model. Finally, the OEE (Overall Equipment Efficiency) calculation was implemented as an indicator of overall equipment efficiency, in order to improve the monitoring of possible deviations during production. The results obtained also prove that lean tools are a powerful method to obtain results without the need of large investments.

3:00pm - 3:20pm

Cost reduction and quality improvements in the printing industry

António André Moreira1, Francisco J. G. Silva1, Aldina I. Correia2, Luís Pinto Ferreira1, Maria Teresa Pereira1, Fátima de Almeida2

1ISEP - School of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto, Portugal; 2ESTG - School of Management and Technology, Polytechnic of Porto, Portugal

Times of changing have been lived in the most diverse industrial sectors as consequence of the last economic slowdown. The economic crisis that marked the beginning of this millennium has made the market more competitive in such a way that forced the total readjustment of processes and operations which, in some cases, gave origin to deep changes in the organizations. In addition to the economic factors, concerns and consequent environmental constraints began to increase. Printing industry was strongly influenced by these factors.

This study aims to combine the reduction of the consumption of toxic consumables in offset printing with the reduction of general costs as well as promote a productivity increase regarding the printing industry. In order to obtain these results, it is necessary to analyze the average atmospheric conditions, such as the water conditions in the region where the company is located, thus, with the historical data collected, one can reach the balance between the printing consumables, processes and methodologies, being able to induce important improvements.

At the end of the study, the final results revealed clear evidences of the productivity increase in most processes, increasing Overall Equipment Effictiveness (OEE) and the Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) and reducing the Mean Time To Repair (MTTR) in several equipment. The biggest achievement was the massive reduction of the isopropyl alcohol consumption in the offset printing, increasing the air quality at the facilities, reducing the costs and most of the problems during the printing process.

3:20pm - 3:40pm

Development of an Integrated Quality Management Conceptual Framework for Manufacturing Organisations

Sameh M Saad, Mohamed Khamkham

Sheffield Hallam University, United Kingdom

In the last couple of decades manufacturing management models such as Six-Sigma, Lean Manufacturing and TQM have been implemented by many organizations to facilitate the production lines, improving the quality perfor-mance. However, no one of these models able to solve all organization prob-lems when implemented alone, on the other hand integrated management models such as Lean-Six Sigma, have been empowered organizations to ex-ceed the improvement rates and achieves competitive advantage. The paper attempted to develop an integrated quality management conceptual frame-work between Six-Sigma, Lean manufacturing and TQM to eliminate the quality issues and to improve and modernize the quality system for manu-facturing organisations. The aim is to simplify the implementation process, improve the operation performances and provide imputes and guidance for manufacturing organisations in order to attain sustainable improvement and performance excellence. The paper reviewed the literature relevant to the topic and the required tools to carry out this research, questionnaire survey designed to collect the required data and to validate the Framework. The re-search results concluded that the framework developed is applicable for manufacturing organisations and can assist to achieve competitive ad-vantages if adopted or applied correctly.

1:40pm - 3:40pmTue-13.40-Pa: Manufacturing Systems Design and Analysis 2
Session Chair: Francisco J. G. Silva
Session Chair: Andresa Baptista da Silva
Park Room 
1:40pm - 2:00pm

Investigations on the Edge Crack root cause in Dual Phase steel stamping process

Carlos R. M. Silva, Francisco J. G. Silva, Ronny M. Gouveia

ISEP - School of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto, Portugal

Advanced High Strength Steels – AHSS are widely applied in Automotive Industry, mainly in car Body in White - BIW parts. These steels are in permanent evolution, being fundamental that stamping processes industry follow this evolution. It is of great importance to fully understand the different mechanical behavior and specific characteristics, that most influence the stamping process of these steels, against traditional mild steels. Dual Phase – DP parts produced by stamping process, present specific kind of defects during manufacturing, namely the Edge Crack defect. During manufacturing of these parts, is not uncommon, the sudden appearance of edge crack defect, without a clear answer if the root cause of the problem is the material or the process itself, leading to commercial issues between the stamper and the steelmakers. Based on a real industry problem of a stamped DP steel part, this work aims to find and troubleshoot the root cause of the defect, finding the reasons of its appearance going through: stamping process analysis techniques (numerical simulation); tooling solutions implementation; technological try outs and metallography analysis.

The main goal of the present work was successfully achieved, identifying and clarifying the root cause of the defect, furthermore, based on voluntary consensus technical standards, a methodology to evaluate the dual phase steels was created, which can be quickly applied by the stamper, to validate the conformity of the material.

2:00pm - 2:20pm

On the Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) Process Evolution

Andresa Baptista1,2, Francisco J. G. Silva1, Gustavo Pinto1,2, J. Porteiro2, J. J. Míguez2, Liliana Fernandes1

1ISEP - School of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto, Portugal; 2Universidad de Vigo - Dpto. de Ingeniería Mecánica, Máq. y Motores Térmicos y Fluidos

Advanced coatings play an important role in a wide range of industrial applications. These coatings are commonly used in machining tools due its high hardness and wear resistance, but also can be applied in jewellery and decorative purposes. The deposition techniques have known a strong evolution as result of the directly related devices, control evolution and software. Several variants have been developed around the main techniques: arc evaporation and sputtering. The coatings produced present significant differences in their characteristics, namely in terms of structure, mechanical properties and surface morphology. Depending on the substrate material and application, the deposition process needs to be properly selected, providing the particular characteristics requested. This paper intends to do a critical review about the evolution of the advanced coatings deposition techniques, mainly focused on the Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) process, particularly in the Magnetron Sputtering technique, which is able to produce smooth surfaces, using lower temperatures, presenting excellent mechanical and tribological properties and having very good adhesion to the main materials used as substrate.

2:20pm - 2:40pm

Study on the optimization of textile coloristic performance of bleaching process using pad steam

Carla A. G. Tavares1, Francisco J. G. Silva1, Aldina I. Correia2, Maria Teresa Pereira1, Luís Pinto Ferreira1, Fátima De Almeida2

1ISEP - School of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto, Portugal; 2ESTG - School of Management and Technology, Polytechnic of Porto, Portugal

The information concerning the critical variables of the bleaching process (transformation of a raw fabric into bleached) by pad-steam is scarce, since it is considered a recent process in the textile industry.

The 100% cotton fine fabrics present great difficulties in the standardization of its bleaching throughout different production batches, being even more difficult when it is not known the constitution of the fabric provided by the supplier.

Thus, evaluations of whose variables are influencing the color yield in the bleaching process by pad-steam at Estamparia Adalberto Pinto da Silva were carried out. The conditions used, were the reintroduction of the process of desizing by pad-batch, and washing and bleaching by pad-steam. The other variable changed was the chemical recipes (desizing and bleaching).

As results of this research, the most color yield influencing variables were the whiteness degree (Berger) and the pH of extraction. Hence, a change in the production process for this type of 100% fine cotton is needed. In this work, a statistical control was performed on the characteristics of the product obtained, comparing results before and during the study. Suggestions for improvement, some of them already implemented, are also presented. The results were then compared, being possible to observe a significant improvement.

2:40pm - 3:00pm

Development of a novel equipment for automated clothing manufacturing

P. M. M. Santos1, Raul D. S. G. Campilho1,2, Francisco J. G. Silva1

1ISEP - School of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto, Portugal; 2INEGI - Polo FEUP, Porto, Portugal

To achieve quality in the clothing manufacturing industry, it is necessary to innovate and automate certain processes, in order to increase productivity and reduce errors due to labor-intensive tasks. This study is based on the need to design a machine able to sew and cut collars and cuffs, to be applied on clothing. Initially, a survey for similar purpose existing equipment was performed. Then, it was necessary to devise an equipment able to meet the expectations and requirements of the client. After the initial sketches, in which the types of mechanisms and the desired functions of the different systems were defined as a function of the intended movements and actions and the equipment structure, these systems have been optimized to obtain a functional unit as the final result. The Finite Element Method was used as a design tool for the machine structure. The drive system was also fully designed, powered by a set of electric motors. The pneumatic scheme and Grafcet of operation of the equipment were also designed. The end result is a fully-functional solution to apply in this type of equipment. In fact, the proposed solution is a viable possibility for an automated equipment for sewing and cutting collars and cuffs.

3:00pm - 3:20pm

Injection mold design for a plastic component with blowing agent

Rui C. N. Barbosa1, Raul D. S. G. Campilho1,2, Francisco J. G. Silva1

1ISEP - School of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto, Portugal; 2INEGI - Polo FEUP, Porto, Portugal

The mold industry is an innovative and high technology sector. The fabrication of precision molds for the plastics industry has progressively increased, and it requires expertise in the fields of design and mold manufacturing. Using a blowing agent brings several advantages to large plastic parts such as less warp, shorter injection cycle, smaller injection machines, and weight reduction. This work had as main objective to proceed with the design of a mold for a large part injected with blowing agent for the food industry. Due to its shape and dimension, it was necessary to pay special attention to the extraction methodology, to be implemented during the design of the mold mechanics. A rheological study of the mold with standard injection and using a blowing agent was also carried out, based on a specialized Finite Element Modelling software, considering different injection times. This numerical analysis pointed out the advantages and disadvantages of using a blowing agent, by accounting for the injection time, temperature during injection, voids content, injection pressure, mold closing force, shrinkage, cooling time and cooling warp. Significant improvements were achieved by using a blowing agent, namely regarding the voids percentage, shrinkage reduction, less component weight and reduced cooling warp.

3:20pm - 3:40pm

A Structural Literature Review of the Single Minute Exchange of Die: The Latest Trends

Radu Godina1, Carina Pimentel2, Francisco J. G. Silva3, João C. O. Matias2

1C-MAST, University of Beira Interior, Portugal; 2GOVCOPP, DEGEIT, University of Aveiro, Portugal; 3ISEP - School of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto

Nowadays, the manufacturing industry is increasingly globalized and competitive, where the quality, cost, variety and fulfillment of the deadlines of delivery are fundamental factors for the customer. Therefore, to better meet these demands companies need to find strategies to make their processes more flexible, efficient and efficient. In the modern industrial environments the elimination of waste in order to concentrate as much as possible on value-added activities often leads to a reduction in the downtime of equipment. In addition, product diversification and reduced orders lead companies to have to optimize their setup processes on the equipment to produce the different required references. Making the setups faster is to keep the machine less downtime, while converging with the need to decrease non-added value operations. One way to achieve the reduction of setup changeover time is through Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED). The goal in this paper is to perform a brief literature review regarding the SMED methodology which is addressed throughout several scientific fields, but most often in scientific publications in the fields of engineering and management. As a result, a widespread number of research papers from distinct authors are utilized to achieve the objectives of the current study. The time range for this study is from 2007 till 2018 and the selection includes journal, conference proceedings and book chapter papers. A descriptive analysis of the results is then made through charts and tables which are utilized to enrich the content and to offer a practical and simple presentation.

1:40pm - 3:40pmTue-13.40-Th: Sustainable Manufacturing and Engineering 4
Session Chair: Alan Ryan
Session Chair: Maria De Fátima De Almeida Ferreira
Thurber Room 
1:40pm - 2:00pm

Compatibilization effect of organophilic clay in PA6/PP polymer blend

Fátima De Almeida1, Aldina Correira1, Eliana Costa e Silva1, I. Cristina Lopes2, Francisco J. G. Silva3

1ESTG-School of Technology and Management, Polytechnic of Porto, Portugal; 2ISCAP – School of Accounting and Administration, Polytechnic of Porto, Portugal; 3ISEP – School of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto

The analysis of the morphology of pairs of compatibilized polymers that included nanolayers of clay was the object of numerous works. Although the location of the nanofiller within one or the two-phase interface has been occasionally addressed, serious complexities have often been found with the lack of knowledge about the interface region found.

This work focuses a new approach to study the compatibilization effect of organophilic clays in PA6/PP polymer blends by melt compounding using a Twin Screw Extruder, under fixed operating conditions. The use of two kinds of organomodified clays, organoclay C15A and C30B, as two compatibilizers having different chemical affinity to polymers, led to localization of clay either in the polyamide or at the polyamide/polypropylene interface region. Such behavior it is confirmed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy results, as well X-ray diffraction, rheological and tensile strength measurements. The experimental results variations are studied, of the blends nanocomposites PA/PP/Clay and PA/PP/PP-g-MA/Clay, using non-parametric analysis of variance (Kruskal-Wallis Test). For all the experimental results, significant differences are identified between the types of polymer blends. It was observed the compatibilization effect of both organophilic clays, being the differences most evident in the presence of PP modified.

2:00pm - 2:20pm

Finite element analysis of paperboard package under compressional load

Minhaj Zaheer1, Muhammad Awais2, Lauri Rautkari2, Joonas Sorvari1

1Lappeenranta University of Technology, Centre of Computational Engineering and Integrated Design (CEID), P.O. Box 20, Lappeenranta FI-53851, Finland; 2Aalto University of Technology, Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems, P.O. Box 11000, FI-00076 AALTO, FINLAND

Paper and paperboard based packages are widely use in domestic storage and commercial transportation applications. However, the structural integrity of the packages can be damaged with the applied compressional load. The stacking of boxes one above the other or the external load deform the thin wall of paperboard package. Moreover, the packages are also locally creased to enhance the folding. The folded edge also provide support against the deformation of the package. In this article, the effect of compressional force on paperboard packages was analyzed with the aid of finite element analysis. Two packages with and without crease were modelled and their elastic limits, stress distribution was compared. The creases were applied using hinge connectors restricting 5 degrees of freedom. Only the rotational motion is allowed that assist the folding of paperboard. The paperboard is modelled as an orthotropic elastoplastic material. The plastic behavior was defined with Hill’s yield criteria and isotropic hardening. The Eigen value analysis was performed to determine the critical forces and stresses. The results obtained from finite element analysis show that the creases enhance the compressional capability of the package and theoretical calculations were close to the calculated values.

2:20pm - 2:40pm

Dynamic Joint Construction and Optimal Strategy of Multi-Objective Multi-Period Multi-Stage Reverse Logistics Network: A Case Study of Lead Battery in Shanghai

Jianquan Guo1, Fang Jiang2, Mitsuo Gen3

1Sino-Germany school,University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, China, People's Republic of China; 2Business school, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, China, People's Republic of China; 3Tokyo University of Science, Japan Fuzzy Logic Systems Institute, Japan

An integrated multi-objective multi-period multi-stage government-enterprise joint model is constructed to recycle used lead battery effectively. The feasibility of the model is validated with a numerical example by adopting a two-phase heuristic algorithm nesting GA/PSO. The results show that the negative effect of the operation of the system to the surroundings is minimized, and the facility resources are fully utilized because of the multi-period arrangement of recycling activities in the system. In addition, the arrangement of the locations and quantity of its nodes in different stages not only reduces the uncertain risk of the system, but optimizes the input of money, manpower and material during the whole operation process. The study provides a reference for the design of joint construction of government-enterprise reverse logistics network and its optimal operation, especially for the recovery of this kind of used products with high negative externality.

2:40pm - 3:00pm

Investigating Process Water Recovery within the Irish Dairy Industry.

Elaine O'Connor, Alan Ryan, Patrick Cronin, Greg Lohan

University of Limerick, Ireland

The abolition of EU milk quotas in April 2015 have provided a platform for agriculture, and in particular for milk production, to grow significantly within the EU. This growth has been dramatic and almost instantaneous with a 33% increase in milk production recorded in 2016. However the nature of the dairy processing industry makes it highly water intensive, water is required for washing, cleaning in place (CIP), flushing of product and numerous other uses. Typically Irish dairy processors obtain this water from ground supply, river, lake or treated public supplies, however as milk production increases the hydraulic demand also increases therefore long term sustainability issues surrounding water supply required make it imperative alternative water sources are investigated.

This paper details the uses of filtration based recovery technologies to material, which currently is sent directly to processors’ wastewater treatment plant. A fundamental requirement to facilitate potential reuse is that the filtered material meets EPA and EU drinking water standards and guidelines.

This paper has established, through design of experiments, the optimal running parameters for NF, UF and RO membranes when filtering samples of between 0 and 0.5% Fat. It has established that for NF filters a speed of 35Hz and pressure of 135 PSI is optimal, for NF Filters a Speed of 35 Hz and a pressure of 400 PSI is recommended and for RO membrane a speed of 35 Hz and a PSI of 475 operates best.

This paper has further outlined the quality levels required by recovered filtered water to match current fresh water used on site within Irish Dairy processers, by achieving this level of quality filtration offers the opportunity to reduce fresh water requirements within the industry by at least 20% and would also significantly reduce the hydraulic load currently going to wastewater treatment plants which is a limiting factor to expansion of the industry.

3:00pm - 3:20pm

Solving Robust Resource Constrained Scheduling Problem by Multi-objective Optimization Method based on Hybridization of EDA and GA

Xinchang Hao1, Lu Sun2, Mitsuo Gen3

1Changzhou Institute of Technology, Changzhou, China; 2School of Software, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China; 3Fuzzy Logic Systems Institute and Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo, Japan

This paper proposes a robust scheduling method based on hybridization of EDA and GA, dealing with resource constrained scheduling problems with uncertainty of activity duration times. Two kinds of robust measures on time-based-robust and capacity-based-robust are introduced to evaluate the robustness of scheduling solutions, and the robust scheduling problem is formulated as bi-objective of minimizing makespan and maximizing time based robustness under a chance constraint of satisfying the threshold of capacity based robustness. By using scenario-based simulation, a stochastic multi-phased robust optimization method is proposed. In the first phase, with the averaged duration, the problem is solved as the deterministic multi-objective scheduling problem without considering duration uncertainty and chance constraints, and some candidate solutions are collected. In the second phase, the alternative solutions are checked by the chance constraints of capacity-based-robust measure and then, robustness measure is evaluated by using scenario-based simulation. Moreover, one problem-specific local search with considering both makespan and robustness is designed to increase the solution quality. Experiment results based on a benchmark (PSPLIB) and comparisons demonstrate that our approach is highly effective and tolerant of uncertainty.

3:40pm - 4:10pmCoffee break
4:10pm - 5:30pmTue-16.10-Ch: Additive, Subtractive and Hybrid Manufacturing 2
Session Chair: Hantang Qin
Session Chair: Aditya Umesh Mahadik
Chittenden Room 
4:10pm - 4:30pm

Machine vision assisted micro-filament detection for real-time monitoring of electrohydrodynamic inkjet printing

Hantang Qin

Iowa State University, United States of America

Electrohydrodynamic inkjet printing (e-jet printing) is one type of micro/nano scale 3D printing technique that automatically deposits functional materials to form 3D structures on the substrate. Unlike traditional thermal or acoustic inkjet printing, e-jet printing utilizes high electrical forces that enable the ink to overcome surface tension at the tip of micro needles. The droplets and filaments coming out from the needle have dimensions much smaller than the dimensions of the needle, thus printing geometries in micro and nano scale. E-jet printing process parameters could affect the final quality attributes of fabricated constructs. Currently, assessment of these critical geometries and attributes must be performed offline using optical microscopy or scanning electron microscopy. This drawback affected the efficiency of micro/nano printing from translation into industrial practice. The research in this paper focused on fundamental research to enable in-situ monitoring of e-jet printing using a real-time images characterization technique. In conclusion, the study in this paper investigated using machine vision for real-time monitoring of micro/nano scale 3D printing. The method worked well for micro-filament detection in e-jet printing, and may be further implemented into feedback control system of complicated e-jet printing. However, the optical machine vision was limited to micro scale detection. One of the future research topic is to develop nano scale in-situ detection mechanism for e-jet printing.

4:30pm - 4:50pm

A novel approach to optimize the design of parts for Additive Manufacturing

Francisco J. G. Silva, Raul D. S. G. Campilho, Ronny M. Gouveia, Gustavo F. L. C. Pinto, Andresa Baptista

ISEP - School of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto, Portugal

Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a term used to group the different manufacturing processes that use various techniques, each of which is capable of producing parts made from a wide variety of materials, such as polymers, ceramics, metals, wood, among others. All these technologies allow parts manufacturing by adding successive layers of material which can be liquid, powder or wire. In order to take advantages from the geometric freedom offered by AM, Topological Optimization (TO) is usually used. TO provides the optimal distribution of material for a given request. The main objective is the weight reduction, without compromising the original resistance of an existing part produced by traditional processes.

Taking advantage of the freedom allowed by the AM process and conciliating it with the CAE features those allow for simulate the parts behaviour when subjected to the expected loads, a new approach methodology was drawn in order to shortening the time needed to optimize the parts design for AM. A case study was developed in order to validate the methodology established. The combination of AM and TO revealed promising results, regarding the component efficiency.

4:50pm - 5:10pm

Conversion of the SCARA Robot into a Hybrid Manufacturing Workstation

Sanjeewa. S. Jayasinghe Gamaralalage, Jesus Pagan, Dusan Sormaz

Ohio university, United States of America

Combination of two or more manufacturing processes in a single machining setup, Hybrid Manufacturing (HM), has taken more attention in both industry and academia last decade. Many researches focus on combining different manufacturing processes on a single workstation in order to eliminate individual process related limitations and increase advantages. Significant work has been done in adding additive manufacturing (AM) capability to standard machines (mostly NC Milling machines) by adding an AM tool head as one of available options in the machine’s tool magazine. In this paper we propose the workstation design based on recycling and reusing somewhat obsolete equipment. The main purpose of the presented work, was to develop a flexible HM workstation to investigate combining different additive manufacturing (AM) processes with a subtractive manufacturing process (SM) processes. The paper discusses steps of modifying an existing SCARA type robot as an expandable HM workstation to combine CNC machining and fuse filament fabricating (FFF), an AM process, in a single machining setup. The paper explains the process of conversion of the 4-axes SCARA robot and describes implementation of new motors on the existing robot construction, development of new controls by using more modern version of control software architecture. Required transformation functions for inverse kinematics of the 4-axis robot were developed and implemented into the new controller. The robot was programmed to run using G-code for both additive and subtractive manufacturing processes. From the described design the prototype workstation has been built and its operation was tested on sample hybrid manufacturing task.

5:10pm - 5:30pm

Implementation of Additive Manufacturing Cost Estimation Tool (AMCET) Using Break-down Approach

Aditya Umesh Mahadik, Dale Masel

Ohio University, United States of America

Additive Manufacturing (AM) is the technique of producing parts directly from three-dimensional Computer Aided Design (3D CAD) models by adding thin layers of material over each other, resulting in the desired final geometry. AM technology has application in several industries such as aerospace, defense, automotive, commercial, healthcare and dental. Cost estimation of AM is helpful for designers and engineers at the preliminary design stage to understand cost impact on alternative designs.

The aim of this research is to develop a cost estimation model for parts made through AM using a break-down approach. The total cost is an addition of machine, material, labor, and post-processing, which is calculated using limited number of primary user input parameters. If additional part or process parameters are available the user can enter the secondary input parameters to increase the accuracy of an estimate. The building time is estimated by considering the activities undergone by machine for preparation of a single layer. The triangular distribution is used in this research to determine an accurate estimate and deal with the uncertainty involved in estimating the machine operation hours.

4:10pm - 5:30pmTue-16.10-Ga: Workshop, Cells and Assembly Lines, Part 2
Session Chair: Gursel Suer
Additional fee, only for workshop ticket holders.
Great Southern Gallery 

Workshop on flexibility in production and assembly lines, part 2

Gursel Suer

Ohio University, United States of America

In this workshop, the need for flexibility in production lines is introduced first. Then, cellular design for manufactured parts are discussed with examples. Later, layered cellular design that brings a high level of flexibility and efficiency to manufacturing system is illustrated. In the second part of the workshop, manufacturing cells and assembly lines are integrated. In the last segment of the workshop, assembly line balancing, parallel stations, parallel assembly lines, assembly lines with by-pass stations, U-shaped assembly lines, linked assembly cells and mixed-model sequencing issues are addressed.

4:10pm - 5:30pmTue-16.10-Ne: Lean and Agile Manufacturing 4
Session Chair: Francisco J. G. Silva
Session Chair: Damasio José Silva Correia
Neil Room 
4:10pm - 4:30pm

Analysis and Improvement of Processes in the Jewelry Industry

Hugo Tiago Rocha, Luís Pinto Ferreira, Francisco J. G. Silva

ISEP - School of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto, Portugal

In an increasingly competitive and flexible market, the continuous improvement of processes is essential to enhance effectiveness and efficiency. This approach has proved to be indispensable in generating change in the world of business so that companies can grow in size and scale, and are able to succeed in a global context. This study was developed at a company in the jewelry industry, more specifically in the area of production control. The objective was that of analyzing and improving both the management process as well as production control. By adopting tools from the Lean Thinking philosophy and a beta version of MES software (manufacturing-execution-system), the company was able to implement new strategies with a view to minimizing waste and ensuring continuous improvement, thus contributing to greater customer satisfaction. By resorting to these tools, one saw marked improvements in the process studied, namely: better productive organization; workers endowed with good organizational practices, and a more thorough control of the entire production process.

4:30pm - 4:50pm

A Practical Study of the Application of SMED to Electron-beam Machining in Automotive Industry

Marc Martins1, Radu Godina2, Carina Pimentel3, Francisco J. G. Silva4, João C. O. Matias2,3

1Coficab-company Wires and Cables Ltd; 2C-MAST, University of Beira Interior, Portugal; 3GOVCOPP, DEGEIT, University of Aveiro, Portugal; 4ISEP - School of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto

The Single Minute Exchange Die (SMED) is a methodology that allows reducing the equipment’s set-up times, enabling economical production in small batches. Its use helps reduce lead times, enabling the company to respond quickly to market changes. Another advantage is the economic production of small manufacturing lots, which usually requires low investments in the production process. In addition, SMED reduces the occurrence of errors in the equipment. In this paper an analysis is made of the application of SMED toll on the electron beam machine (EBM), since the EBM can be used for a wide range of applications and services. Thus, the main research was made as a case study in a tier one automotive supplier where the application of SMED allowed reducing the setup time for more than 50%. Also, the application of this tool allowed to entirely eliminate the scrap generated due to pre-determined actions. Full results, detailed analysis and further conclusions will be published in the full paper.

4:50pm - 5:10pm

Improving the multibrand channel distribution of a fashion retailer

Tiago Silva, Maria Teresa R. Pereira, Luís Pinto Ferreira, Francisco J. G. Silva

ISEP - School of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto, Portugal

The number of clients and the quantity ordered is exponentially growing on fashion retailer multibrand channel, inducing the need for improving the channel's distribution process, making possible to satisfy the customers’ orders in the shortest time and in a cost-effective way, fulfilling the delivery term agreed with the market.

The mapping of the supply flow process, the space occupation and the spaghetti dash diagram of four current distribution process activities were studied, together with the productivity calculation, the cycle time, the takt time and the service level designed to prepare a system to evaluate the company performance. The ABC and SWOT customers’ analyses, as well as the previously referred studies, allowed develop the improvement proposal, characterized by (a) layout changing, (b) supply flow improvement, (c) application of gravitational carriers as well as more ergonomic transport ways and (d) the use of computer applications developed in Visual Basic language for the distribution process.

Based on this proposal, it is possible to increase the amount sorted out by distributor in an eight hours shift in 294 articles (11,23%), reducing the minimum cycle time from 0,015 minutes/article to 0,013 minutes/article (13,33%), which results in the segregation of articles in the available time for the next collections. Having a space occupation reduction of 47 m2 in average by collection (1,39%), a reduction of 1 498 468 meters (23,34%) in the average distance per collection, a reduction of five employees (12,82%) in average per collection, and an increase of 535 boxes (11,30%) of the finished product storage capacity.

The total investment needed is 23 754,42 €, but the payback time will be just six months, obtaining a cumulative profit of 84 504,23 € until the end of the fall/winter 2020 collection.

5:10pm - 5:30pm

Improving manual assembly lines devoted to complex electronic devices by applying Lean tools

Damásio Correia, Francisco J. G. Silva, Ronny M. Gouveia, Maria Teresa Pereira, Luís Pinto Ferreira

ISEP - School of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto, Portugal

Manual assembly lines are usually deeply studied before implementation, nevertheless, several problems upsurge when the product needs to be slightly changed. This is very common in complex electric and electronic devices usually produced in small batches, where the customers are demanding more and more features and the product needs to be continuously updated. However, this updates sometimes create huge difficulties to the previous installed assembly line, generating as well line unbalancing and wastes of time regarding the initial situation. In this paper, a deep study of an adjusted assembly line of electronic devices was carried out using value stream planning method to fully understand and document the different tasks and operations. The lean line balancing was also applied in order to reduce the line bottleneck by balancing the task time of each work station so that there are no delays and nobody is overburden with their task. Standardized processes and standardized work were also applied. During the line layout development stage, assembly fixtures, wastes reductions and visual management techniques were applied as well, different concepts were generated and, finally, the best solutions were selected. Throughout the study, many benefits for the studied manual assembly line were found, which can be considered as a strong motivation to apply lean manufacturing tools for better line efficiency and production rate.

4:10pm - 5:30pmTue-16.10-Pa: Modelling and Simulation of Manufacturing and Services 3
Session Chair: Georges AbdulNour
Session Chair: Andreas Zeller
Park Room 
4:10pm - 4:30pm

A critical review on the numerical simulation related to Physical Vapour Deposition

Gustavo Pinto1,2, Francisco J. G. Silva1, Andresa Baptista1,2, J. Porteiro2, J. J. Míguez2, Liliana Fernandes1

1ISEP - School of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto, Portugal; 2Universidad de Vigo - Dpto. de Ingeniería Mecánica, Máq. y Motores Térmicos y Fluidos

Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) is a process usually used for the production of advanced coatings regarding its application in several industrial and current products, such as optical lens, moulds and dies, decorative parts or cutting tools. This process have several variants due to its strong evolution along the last decades. The process is commonly assisted by plasma, creating a particular low pressure and medium temperature atmosphere, which is responsible by the atomic particles transition between the target and the parts to be coated into a vacuum reactor. Several parameters are directly affecting the deposition, namely the substrate temperature, pressure inside the reactor, assisting gases used, type of current, power supply, bias, substrate and target materials, samples holder and corresponding rotation, deposition time, among others. Many mathematical models have been developed in order to allow the generation of numerical simulation applications, trying to combine parameters and expect the corresponding results. Numerical simulation applications were created around the mathematical models previously developed, whose can play an important role in the prediction of the coating properties and structure. This paper intends to describe the numerical simulation evolution in the last years, namely the use of FEM (Finite Elements Method) and CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics).

4:30pm - 4:50pm

Composition of Modular Models for Verification of Distributed Automation Systems

Andreas Zeller, Michael Weyrich

University of Stuttgart, Germany

The increasing complexity of distributed automation systems requires new methods to verify the correct functionality. Model-based verification is an established approach to test the behavior of the system under test, before going into operation. To apply model-based techniques the overall system model is needed. Due to the high complexity of the overall system and the changing dependencies caused by reconfigurations or software modifications an overall system model is seldom available or maintained. In this paper, we propose a modeling technique to manage the complexity of the overall system by modularization which is dedicated to distributed systems. This is presented in a formal way. Thereby, the modeling techniques regard the requirements of a service-oriented-architecture and the properties of automation systems, like interfaces to the technical process and parallelism caused by the distribution. In addition, we present calculation rules how to build up the overall system model automatically which can be used to verify system requirements.

4:50pm - 5:10pm

Optimization of the Emergency Department in Hospitals Using Simulation and Experimental Design: A Case Study

Abdeljelil Aroua, Georges AbdulNour

Université de Québec à Trois-Rivières, Canada

This case study aims at evaluating the impact of different scenario policies drawn from a hospital emergency department committee of experts, using the Delphi method and a literature review, on the Emergency Department (ED) performance. The purpose is to improve Length of Stay (LOS) of patients. Simulation and a Design of Experiment (DOE) were used in order to assess the LOS sensitivities to the selected improving scenarios: Fast Tracking, addition of stretchers for patients under observation, improvement of the waiting times for a consultation with a specialist, improvement of the waiting times for admission, and improvement of the treatment times for patients under observation.

5:10pm - 5:30pm

Minimizing the adhesion effects in food packages forming by the use of advanced coatings

Liliana Fernandes1,2, Francisco J. G. Silva1, Olga C. Paiva1, Andresa Baptista1, Gustavo Pinto1

1ISEP - School of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto, Portugal; 2COLEP PORTUGAL, S.A.

The metal packaging industry used for food application has undergone drastic changes in the demands of its final consumers. Raw material for these packages is a low carbon steel coated with a thin layer of tin (2,8 g/m2), also known as tinplate. The stamping process of these packages occurs at room temperature and is critically influenced by the tin transfer from the steel surface to the tool surface, mainly due to the tin softness. This problem is easily solved using lubrification but the purpose of this study will be the reduction or even absence of lubricants during the process in order to comply with costumers’ requirements. A successful way to minimize the consumption of lubricants is to use tools which are coated with PVD advanced coatings deposited with unbalanced magnetron sputtering technique.

Thin WC and CrCN coatings were deposited using PVD on tool stamping steel – AISI D2. Block on ring tribological tests were performed on the coatings against tinplate counterface in order to investigate their wear performance, with particular emphasis on the material transfer (tin) phenomena during the sliding tests. The results showed promising results, avoiding the tin adhesion to the die.

4:10pm - 5:30pmTue-16.10-Th: Robotics and CIM 1
Session Chair: Mohammad Munir Ahmad
Session Chair: Haifeng Wang
Thurber Room 
4:10pm - 4:30pm

On the development of a filament winding robotic system

George-Christopher Vosniakos, Isabella Koustas, Theodore Papingiotis, Andi Dine

National Technical University of Athens, Greece

This paper reports on the design, manufacture, control and implementation of a robotic head for filament winding, typically carbon, glass etc. employed in composite shell manufacturing. The head is attached to a 6 axis industrial robot collaborating with a rotary axis on which the filament winding mould is attached.

Conceptualisation and preliminary study of the system was performed on a CAD system with motion analysis involving mainly forward kinematics. Physical constraints of the system are modelled in this way thereby enabling monitoring of resultant motion of points of interest. Using these tools three alternative winding heads were studied, namely one with an inbuilt motor to avoid use of mould rotation, one with an external filament tensioning device targeting large part construction and a third one in which the filament tensioning was embedded in the head itself. The third alternative was implemented.

Control of the system was performed using both the robot’s inbuilt capabilities which were exploited via its programming in V+ language, and microprocessor-based open loop synchronisation of the robot’s axes with the stepping motor that is responsible for rotating the mould.

Cylindrical and conical winding were successfully performed and presented accordingly. Future work refers to a generic programming system of robotic paths for filament winding.

4:30pm - 4:50pm

PID Control and Stability Analysis of an ith Leg of a Six Degree of Freedom Machining Bed

Muhammad Faizan Shah1, Zareena Kausar2, Mohammad Munir Ahmad3

1Khwaja Fareed University of Engineering and Information Technology,Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan; 2Air University, Islamabad, Pakistan; 3Khwaja Fareed University of Engineering and Information Technology,Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan

Process of material removal from workpiece to get desired shape is termed as machining. Current spindle techniques allow quick material removal but performance envelope is limited in such case for higher spindles. The high speed tools are also vulnerable to external and internal vibrations. Cuts made and parts created in existence of these vibrations will result in dimensional inaccuracy and imprecise measurements. A solution of these problems is to restrict the tool motion in a single dimension and instead give Six- Degree of Freedom to the machine bed. A six degree of freedom robotic mechanism is proposed to tackle this problem to be used as a bed for machining. Proposed machining bed is a six degree of freedom parallel manipulator known as Stewart Platform. Overview of design for a six degree of freedom machining bed is presented in this paper. The analysis of machining bed is done on MATLAB®. Close loop response, stability through Bode Plot, Nyquist Plot and Root Loci and selection of a controller when working in open loop conditions is presented in this paper. The results verify that a six degree of freedom bed can be used for the purpose of machining.

4:50pm - 5:10pm

Smart Manufacturing of Thermoplastic CFRP Skins

Alfons Schuster, Lars Larsen, Frederic Fischer, Roland Glück, Stefan Schneyer, Michael Kühnel, Michael Kupke

German Aerospace Center, Germany

High performance aerospace structures often require a combination of innovative materials and new production technologies. Carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) have shown their potentials over the last decades, but caused vast efforts to achive competitive production rates. Thermoplastic matrix systems allow joining by welding, which is a major advantage for assembly. Production systems for plain thermoplastic organic sheets are available on the market, as well as a few tapelaying machines, but there is a lack of systems capable of fabricating 3D-curved, near net shaped preforms that undergo less reshaping in consolidation thus giving a better control over fibre angles. State of the art is manual layup, which is complex and often leads to handling problems. We describe an autonomous smart manufacturing system that is capable of handling unique parts by means of a complete digital workflow from part design over automated cutpiece fabrication, generation of system related meta-information, virtual planning of grip and drop up to the final layup. Parts of the system are the preprocessing and production planning apps, an industrial robot, a gripper with an ultrasonic welder, a storage system for cutpiece supply, a computer vision system, a collision avoidance app and a logging system for process relevant production parameters for inline quality control. Finally, the system was tested on the production of four thermoplastic CFRP skin segments each consisting of 104 cutpieces.

5:10pm - 5:30pm

Comparison of Four Population-Based Meta-Heuristic Algorithms on Pick-and-Place Optimization

Tian He, Haifeng Wang, Sang Won Yoon

Binghamton University, United States of America

This paper applies four different population-based meta-heuristic algorithms to solve a pick-and-place optimization problem of a surface mounter in a PCB assembly environment. A mathematical model of this optimization problem is formulated as an integrated problem of the capacitated vehicle routing problem and the quadratic assignment problem, which are well-known NP-hard problems. A brief description of each method is presented and special operators for the integer encoded solutions are developed. Ten real-world PCB samples are tested and optimized using all the four algorithms. The experiment results show that the genetic algorithm has the best performance in terms of both solution quality and processing time.

6:00pm - 7:00pmGuided Tour of Downtown Columbus
Meet in the Foyer 6:00 pm sharp. Dinner on your own.
Date: Wednesday, 13/Jun/2018
8:30am - 9:00amRegistration
8:30am - 9:50amWed-08.30-Ch: Design and Manufacturing of Personilized Products and Services 2
Session Chair: Matthias Klein
Session Chair: Paolo Guardiani
Chittenden Room 
8:30am - 8:50am

Integrating Human Operators into Agent-based Manufacturing Systems: A Table-top Demonstration

Gary Zheng, Ilya Kovalenko, Kira Barton, Dawn Tilbury

University of Michigan

To stay competitive in the modern market, manufacturing systems must be adaptable and flexible to deal with challenges such as machine breakdowns or requests for new, customized products. A strategy proposed to improve system flexibility is the integration of multi-agent control on the plant floor. The multi-agent control strategy consists of a system of distributed agents (e.g. resource agents, product agents) that are responsible for controlling various parts of the manufacturing system through cooperation. While previous Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) implementations have proposed architectures for resource and product agents, they do not specify how human workers can be integrated to improve system flexibility. This work specifies a Human Resource Agent (HRA) architecture that can be integrated into a manufacturing system with a multi-agent control strategy. The proposed architecture is demonstrated using a table-top manufacturing testbed showcasing the flexibility the HRA can add to a manufacturing system.

8:50am - 9:10am

A negotiation based approach for agent based production scheduling

Matthias Klein, Andreas Löcklin, Nasser Jazdi, Michael Weyrich

University of Stuttgart, Germany

Manufacturing individual products requires individual production. Implement the production of unique products with traditional engineering approaches is thoroughly complex. Therefore, decentralized production systems on the basis of cyber physical systems (CPS) promise a realization schema and thereby, the reduction of the overall systems complexity. Cyber physical systems are rather more complex in communication, time requirements and coordination, but are less complex from a modularization point of view and enable new ways of diagnosis and maintenance. The digitalization of production and new concepts of Industry 4.0 enable direct machine to machine communication, exchange of information and making of common decisions. In this paper an approach for future production in which individual products are scheduled incrementally is presented in this paper. In the presented approach, the product invites production resources to offer process steps in an auction. The product automatically ranks the offers according to requirements which are predefined by the customer. The best quotes are asked to optimize their offers within a negotiation process. To evaluate our approach, a software-agent based demonstrator was implemented.

9:10am - 9:30am

Novel Integrated Robotic System for Tiny Duct Inspection

Paolo Guardiani, Carlo Canali, Alessandro Pistone, Sergio Leggieri, Claudio Gloriani, Nahian Rahman, Ferdinando Cannella, Darwin Caldwell

Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Italy

Every production process, in general, requires a thorough inspection in order to meet user specific standard. For example, in the avionic sector, visual inspection and quality control procedures are extremely important, since the critical parts such as oil ducts of the gearbox and engine components are often contaminated. Currently, the inspection procedures are carried out by workers and exploiting some primary level of instruments such as endoscope or fiberscope. As human operation causes errors, the deficiency in the inspection cannot be nullified completely. Hence, the goal of this study is to design a novel automated robotic probe for reducing the critical level of these visual inspections. The proposed inspection system is suited for checking ducts and cavities, with some channels thinner than 6 mm in diameter. The robotic probe has been developed and tested in a real industrial scenario; a real aircraft gearbox has been inspected with the proposed probe and it successfully identified unwanted residuals such as sand, machining swarf, metallic dust and obstructions. This paper describes how the inspection system is developed using a flexible probe and its capability to perform standard and reproducible inspection of complex ducts, bends and different pathways.

9:30am - 9:50am

Cleaning and Inspection of Air Conditioning Ducts with Rover Explorer Robot

Filipe Santos Aureliano1, Ariellen Aparecida Fidelis Costa2, Alexandre de Oliveira Lopes Lopes3

1Centro Universitário de Minas Gerais - UNIS MG, Brazil; 2Centro Universitário de Minas Gerais - UNIS MG, Brazil; 3Centro Universitário de Minas Gerais - UNIS MG, Brazil

This paper presents a prototype Rover Explorer using the Raspberry PI platform to control his movements, analysis and manipulation of objects in the environment. The project is an automated mechanical manipulator through an integrated system with displacement control and partially autonomous. The prototype is designed for abrasive operations and risk, giving focus and application for cleaning and inspection of cracks, faults and abnormalities in air conditioning ducts, so far regarding to the requirements of ABNT NBR 15848: 2010. The camera (RaspCan) allows precise joint operations with the help of manipulative claw and side brushes for duct cleaning. Its displacement is made by conveyors in both tracks which ensures adaptation uneven floors. The way this handler is designed to allow precise and secure operations, avoiding unhealthy for human health in imminent risk operations. Therefore, all communication is done by wireless network using a software application in C language for Wiringpi library, making it possible environmental analysis by the camera connected to the controller, which allows image transmission in real time. All images and robot control manipulation can be performed through mobile phones, tablets and laptops, allowing your driver does not stay in an unhealthy and unsafe area.

8:30am - 9:50amWed-08.30-Ga: Digital, Cyber and Cloud Manufacturing 1
Session Chair: Kyoung-Yun Kim
Session Chair: Arkopaul Sarkar
Great Southern Gallery 
8:30am - 8:50am

A Mathematical Model for Task Scheduling in Cloud Manufacturing Systems focusing on Global Logistics

Jalal Delaram1, Omid Fatahi Valilai2

1Sharif University of Technology, Islamic Republic of Iran; 2Sharif University of Technology, Islamic Republic of Iran

By emerging modern technologies and novel concepts in recent decade a revolution has initiated, known as Industry 4.0. In this revolution, cloud manufacturing as a major pillar has a critical role. The idea behind the cloud manufacturing concept is establishing a cloud manufacturing platform, which aggregates distributed manufacturing resources, then transforms them into manufacturing services, and manages them in a centralized manner. One of the critical aspects of this centralized management is scheduling of the tasks. The scheduling problem of single/multiple tasks is previously considered in cloud computing transactions, but the structure of this problem is different in cloud manufacturing, regarding logistic aspects. In this paper, a brief review over the prior researches related to the task scheduling in cloud computing and cloud manufacturing is presented. Next, the paper presents a basic model for task scheduling problem in cloud manufacturing systems; and by using an illustrative example the validation and verification of the proposed model are examined. Finally, the paper discusses the results, concludes the remarks and presents the roadmap of the future researches.

8:50am - 9:10am

Hybrid Nugget Width Prediction for Resistance Spot Welding

Jaemun Sim, Kyoung Yun Kim

Wayne State University, United States of America

Resistance spot welding (RSW) is one of the critical joining methods in metal-based industries. The weld nugget width is the crucial factor, which determines the stoutness of final products. In this research, we adopt a hybrid method based on a physical theoretical model and a machine learning method. The physical theoretical model builds a mathematical model to predict the nugget growth and formation. The machine learning method analyzes the correlation between the input parameter (e.g., stack-up characteristics, weld force, weld current, and weld time) and the output parameter(i.e., nugget width). The physical theoretical model expects to show more precise and general prediction; however, it needs an expert knowledge to find the proper dynamic parameters (e.g., resistance and heat energy) of the model. On the other hand, the machine learning model is likely to find the model automatically. However, it seems to be overfitted only for the specific training dataset and it needs massive datasets. The presented hybrid method will adopt the theoretical model and utilize the machine learning to find the unfilled parameters of the physical model. The proposed method will overcome the pitfalls of two pre-existed methods, while it shows the user-friendly and general model with the high accuracy.

9:10am - 9:30am

A modified discrete invasive weed algorithm for optimal service composition in cloud manufacturing systems

Hamed Bouzary, F. Frank Chen, Krishnan Krishnaiyer

The University of Texas at San Antonio, United States of America

Cloud manufacturing (CMfg), as a new service-oriented manufacturing paradigm, is aiming towards sharing and collaborating among distributed manufacturing resources and capabilities. As a result, selecting and combining these services into a composite service to meet the user’s requirements while keeping up the optimal service performances is of paramount importance. In this paper, first of all, QoS-aware service composition and optimal selection (SCOS) problem is modeled as an optimization problem and then a modified discrete invasive weed algorithm is proposed and then applied as a new approach for solving such SCOS problems in CMfg context. The algorithm which mimics the process of weed colonization and distribution, is modified by putting into effect a novel mechanism for mapping normally-distributed dispersal values into the mutation probability of corresponding dispersal direction. The experimental results proves the performance and robustness of the approach.

9:30am - 9:50am

Challenges Building a Data Value Chain to Enable Data-Driven Decisions: A Predictive Maintenance Case in 5G-Enabled Manufacturing

Magnus Åkerman1, Camilla Lundgren1, Maja Bärring1, Mats Folkesson2, Viktor Berggren2, Johan Stahre1, Ulrika Engström2, Martin Friis3

1Chalmers, Sweden; 2Ericsson, Sweden; 3SKF, Sweden

Recent changes in data storage and processing technologies have led many managers to change how they make decisions, relying less on intuition and more on data. This trend is especially notable for the manufacturing industry where Big Data applications, i.e. data analytics, are mentioned as an important enabler of value creation with the event of the fourth industrial revolution. Even though technology provides the opportunities and enables better and more data to the decision-maker, developer and business leaders tend to focus on the potential of the technology that can collect and analyze big volumes of data rather than on the outcome of applying the technology. This paper focuses on the convergence of these different knowledge spaces applied to a specific case of implementing a Big Data application for predictive maintenance. Every step of building the data value chain from data acquisition to system feedback is presented and discussed in terms of the major challenges that were observed during the project. Results show that, just as the literature suggests, the knowledge gaps between different domains is a key component to manage for succeeding when building Big Data applications in the context of future manufacturing and maintenance.

8:30am - 9:50amWed-08.30-Ne: CAD/CAM 1
Session Chair: Besmir Cuka
Session Chair: Tobias Stefanak
Neil Room 
8:30am - 8:50am

Simulation of human-robot collaboration by means of power and force limiting

Uwe Dombrowski1,2, Tobias Stefanak1,2, Anne Reimer1,2

1Institute for Advanced Industrial Management; 2TU Braunschweig, Germany

The role of robots in manufacturing processes is undergoing a revolution. Tremendous gains in productivity and flexibility can be achieved by removing the fences and letting humans and robots work together in the same workspace. Through the use of collaborative robotic systems in final assembly, the demands on the methods and tools of the digital factory, especially the simulation, are increasing. On the one hand the human-robot collaboration (HRC) by means of hand guiding can be simulated very well by interactive simulation with a force feedback device, but on the other hand, there is a significant gap in the simulation of HRC by means of power and force limiting by inherent design or control.

For an exact simulation of HRC by means of power and force limiting by inherent design or control, the simulation environment still has to be further developed. The virtual robot needs to react in a realistic way to the applied forces. There is a great need for research and development in this area to further increase the level of detail and accuracy of the simulation models. The paper describes how to determine the force and pressure in case of a direct collision between the human and robot. The kinematics of the robot model are used to define the reflected mass in a point of interest. The reflected mass and the velocity of the robot allow to calculate the force and pressure applied to a model of the human body in an analytical way.

Referring to the structure of this paper, first the state-of-the-art of domain of robotic simulation is reviewed. Then, the requirements of the simulation of human-robot collaboration by means of power and force limiting by inherent design or control are defined. The introduced method is validated by a series of measurements and some key results are given. Finally, the paper shows how the approach can be beneficial for the implementation of real HRC-scenarios into the factory of tomorrow.

8:50am - 9:10am

Timely and Efficient Chatter Onset Detection for End Milling

Besmir Cuka1, Minho Cho2, Dong-Won Kim1

1Department of Industrial and Information Systems Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, South Korea; 2Korea Marine Equipment Research Institute, Gunsan, Jeollabuk-do, South Korea

Machining stability and chatter are issues that significantly limit the efficiency of metal removal processes, and for this reason they have been intensively investigated in relation to end milling and turning operations. Regardless the advancements in machining stability prediction and modeling, there is still great need for the development of an effective chatter detection and monitoring method. Timely chatter detection prevents the damaging of the cutting tool and workpiece, as it allows for immediate intervention in the cutting process. This paper focuses on right-on-time detection of chatter onset which can be achieved by utilizing computationally efficient methods and by minimizing time lag. The first step of the proposed method is to decompose the measured vibration signal by using Gabor filter bank. Then, for the detection of the transition in cutting dynamics at the onset of chatter, the Teager nonlinear energy operator is used which can track variations in instantaneous speed and amplitude. For the determination of chatter onset, an empirical thresholding technique is developed which has minimal time lag. The proposed method is tested on data obtained from slot end-milling of an inclined surface (incremental depth of cut) with several spindle speeds.

9:10am - 9:30am

Comprehensive Analysis of Chatter Recognition using Multiple Sensors and Multi-layer Neural Networks

Oscar Velásquez Arriaza, Zagaa Tumurkhuyagc, Dong-Won Kim

Department of Industrial and Information Systems Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896, South Korea

Milling is a core process in manufacturing industries. In most cases, manufacturing processes demand large amounts of material to be removed. The productivity of any milling operations can be determined by the capacity to remove material as fast as possible. However, the material removal rate is highly restricted due to chatter and by all the negative effects that come together with chatter. Researchers have used several methodologies to control chatter. However, to be able to control chatter, first it has to be detected. For this, different sensors have been used according to the specific conditions and objectives of particular researches. This study discusses the suitability of several sensors for chatter detection by carefully analyzing and understanding the vibrations involved in the phenomena. A series of experiments are performed on a piece of aluminum7075 fixed in an overhang position, in order to make the cutting process vulnerable to vibrations, therefore facilitating the natural appearance of chatter. Since chatter is a resonant phenomenon excited by the tooth passing frequency of the tool against the work piece, it becomes relevant to study the cutting tool and work piece vibration frequencies. In order to minimize chatter, it is necessary to understand and identify which frequencies to avoid, therefore assuring stable conditions, maintaining good surface quality and acceptable productivity.

The analysis presented in this study is divided into two major parts. The first part is composed by a series of experiments and the signal processing of milling operation vibration, sound and frequencies to understand their influences on chatter and surface quality, by using separate sensors simultaneously. The second part is focused on the evaluation of several Multi-layer Neural Network (MNN) combinations, according to the input of different signals and cutting conditions in order to evaluate which sensor or combination of sensors could provide a reliable source of information for monitoring machining systems and complex deep learning approaches. Finally, a conclusion is obtained considering not only the accuracy of the MNNs but the ease on the practical use of each sensor.

9:30am - 9:50am

Effect of Cryogenic Machining for Titanium Alloy Based on Indirect, Internal and External Spray System

Mohd Azlan Suhaimi1, Gi-Dong Yang2, Kyung-Hee Park2, Mohd Juzaili Hisam1, Safian Sharif1, Dong-Won Kim3

1Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, 81310, Johor, Malaysia; 2Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan-si Chungcheongnam-do, 31056, South Korea; 3Department of Industrial and Information Systems Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, 54896, South Korea

Due to the excellent properties of a Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy such as light weight, high wear and corrosion resistance, the alloy is able to maintain high strength at high elevated temperature. Thus, the material has been used mostly in aerospace and automotive industries. However, titanium alloy is being considered as a hard-to-cut material with poor machinability due to its low thermal conductivity which leads to the excessive tool wear during machining and requires high machining cost. To overcome these problems, cryogenic machining has been taken place as a promising method for machinability improvement in terms of tool wear reduction, lower energy consumption and low machining cost. Furthermore, this method is more environmentally friendly and contamination-free on the machined part if compared with other cooling and lubrication strategies. Even though this method had been implemented for titanium alloy machining, it is difficult to handle the excessive extremely low temperature coolant (up to -150 ℃) that exposed directly to the workpiece. As a result, it will increase the hardness of the workpiece material, hence will increase the required cutting force for the machining process. In concern with the problem, this paper presents an indirect cryogenic cooling mechanism, and the results will be compared with flood cooling, Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) and conventional cryogenic cooling method with external and internal spray systems. Liquid nitrogen (LN2) is selected as the cooling medium in this work since its temperature can reach -196 ℃, odorless and more environmentally friendly. A specially designed tooling kit that is able to supply the liquid nitrogen to the cutting tool internally is used in this method. The developed indirect cryogenic supply method is expected to improve the machinability of Ti-6Al-4V and optimize the machining parameters by reducing the cutting force and tool wear.

8:30am - 9:50amWed-08.30-Pa: Collaborative Robotics in Smart Manufacturing 1
Session Chair: Egon Muller
Session Chair: Varun Gopinath
Park Room 
8:30am - 8:50am

Human-Robot collaboration in a small-scale rail industry: Demanufacturing operations

Humbulani Simon Phuluwa, Khumbulani Mpofu

TUT, South Africa

Trains car production around the globe has been happening for centuries in the developed and developing countries. However, components recovery of the end-of-life train car is difficult to do without affecting negatively the quality and productivity of demanufacturing operations. South African rail industry lacks demanufacturing industries that focus on material recovery of end-of-life train car. This study surveyed literature on robotics and their collaboration with humans in demanufacturing activities and identify key factors that can be useful in demanufacturing operations in a small-scale rail industry. This study used process charts to study and understand robotics collaboration with humans focusing on demanufacturing operations. This study intended to develop a framework for humans collaboration with robotics in small-scale demanufacturing operations rail industry.

8:50am - 9:10am

A Context-Aware Safety System for Human-Robot Collaboration

Hongyi Liu, Yuquan Wang, Wei Ji, Lihui Wang

KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden

Recent advancements in human-robot collaboration enable human workers and robots work together in a shared manufacturing environment. However, there still exist needs for a context-aware safety system which not only protects the safety of human but also provides efficiency to the system. In this paper, the authors present a context-aware safety system that provides safety and efficiency at the same time. The system can plan a path for the robot that avoids human bodies but still reaches the target position in time. Human poses can also be recognised by the system to further increase system efficiency. Different modules, algorithms, and interfaces are introduced in the paper to support the context-aware safety system for human-robot collaboration. A test case is demonstrated to test the performance of the system. At last, a summary of the paper and the future direction is given.

9:10am - 9:30am

Demonstrators to support research in Industrial safety - A Methodology

Varun Gopinath, Micael Derelöv, Kerstin Johansen

Linköping University, Sweden

Activities to support manufacturing research are carried out with the intention to gain knowledge of industrial problems and provide solutions that addresses these issues. In order for solution to be viable to the industry, research activities are carried out in close collaboration with participants from the industry, academia and research institutions.

Interactive research approach motivates participants with multi-disciplinary perspective to collaborate and emphasizes joint learning in the change process. This article, presents a methodology, where participants with different expertise can collaborate to develop safety solutions. The concept of a demonstrator, which represents cumulative result of a series of research activities, is presented as a tool to showcase functioning and design intent in a collaborative research environment. The results of a pilot study, where manufacturing professionals evaluated design decisions that resulted in a demonstrator, will be presented.

9:30am - 9:50am

Evaluation of use cases of autonomous mobile robots in factory environments

Hendrik Unger, Tobias Markert, Egon Müller

Department of Factory Planning and Factory Management, Technische Universität Chemnitz, Germany

The current research goal in the field of robotics is to develop collaborative robots that can safely share their workspace with human coworkers. While there are working solutions to protect humans from damages induced by the body of the robot there are still challenges in the field of tool and work piece safety. When these challenges are completed one of the next steps will be to enable these currently spatial static robots to move freely in their working environment by mounting them to a mobile platform. In the context of future factories this enables new use cases and automation scenarios that are not possible today.

This paper shows several of these future use cases by systematically evaluating current factory structures and deducting areas for mobile robot support. To verify the theoretical results several interviews with representatives of German companies in different market branches have been conducted and are evaluated in the course of this publication. This paper is the base work to a method for planning the application of mobile robots in future factories. The outlook describes further steps in the research, including necessary data to successfully complete certain use cases, considerations on fleet and task manager design, as well as influences of the application of mobile robots on the general factory planning methodology.

8:30am - 9:50amWed-08.30-Th: Robotics and CIM 2
Session Chair: Csaba Raduly-Baka
Session Chair: Bahaa Ansaf
Thurber Room 
8:30am - 8:50am

A novel concept of CNC machining center automatic feeder

Manuel Barbosa1, Francisco J. G. Silva1, Carina Pimentel2, Ronny M. Gouveia1

1ISEP - School of Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto, Portugal; 2GOVCOOP, DEGEIT, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal

Machining operations are extremely relevant in the current metalworking scenario. Many efforts have been made by researchers in order to optimize machining trajectories and automatic machine feeding systems. However, only the large companies with huge productions have capacity enough to invest in sophisticated feeding systems. This project intends to present a solution to extend the autonomy of machining centers by using a 6-axis robot to replace the operator on work piece feeding operation. The system consists in a robot embedded in the same structure as a small warehouse positioned on one side of the machine, maintaining the possibility of operating in a standard manner. With the modular construction of the warehouse it is possible to accommodate numerous work piece sizes and engraving a Quick Response code at the work piece holder allows its identification and therefore brings flexibility to the system. It is expected that a milling machine equipped with this system present an extended working capability without human intervention, becoming possible to extract more useful process control information, in line with the Industry 4.0 needs.

8:50am - 9:10am

Influence of Humidity and Actuation time on Electromechanical Characteristics of Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite Actuators

Bahaa Ansaf, Trung Huy Duong, Nebojsa I. Jaksic, Jude L. DePalma, Aiman Al-Allaq, Brandon DeHerrera, Boyan Li

Colorado State University Pueblo, United States of America

This paper experimentally investigates the effects of humidity and actuation time on the electromechanical properties of Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites (IPMC) to improve the practical applications of using the IPMCs as soft biomimetic sensors and actuators. The experiments are conducted in both the open atmosphere (uncontrolled environment at room temperature) and inside a controlled environmental chamber under different input voltages (in term of wave shape, value, and frequency). Results show that the IPMC’s electromechanical properties, namely the deformation capacity and electrical resistance, highly depend on the water content (in the IPMC strip and environment) and the duration of actuation. The Deflection and current of the tested IPMC samples can be represented by an exponential time function were an exponent value decreases with increasing the humidity. IPMC deformation capacity decreases while material electrical resistance increases during activation session. Increasing relative humidity to more than 50% reduces the drying effect on the IPMC deformation capacity and resistance. Also, the IPMC material shows a relaxation behavior for a step voltage input, which can be related to the back immigration of the hydrated cations from the anode to the cathode due to higher pressure at the anode side of the IPMC strip.

9:10am - 9:30am

Efficient tool loading heuristic for machines with modular feeder units.

Csaba Raduly-Baka1, Juha Makila1, Mika Johnsson2, Olli Nevalainen1

1University of Turku, Finland; 2Siemens

Numerically controlled placement machines are often equipped with modular feeder units. These allow the group loading of a large number of component reels in one step. The production program consists of a list of PCB assembly jobs, where each job presupposes the placement of a given set of components. Component reels can be loaded individually or in group. Individual reel loading has been extensively studied in the past (Tool switching Problem), but there has been no algorithmic solution published for modular feeder loading. The problem in known to be NP-hard even for a fixed job sequence. We introduce a mathematical $0-1$ formulation, a lower bound on the optimal result, and an efficient heuristics. We evaluate the heuristic against the lower bound.

9:30am - 9:50am

Predictive Maintenance of Machine Tool Linear Axes: A Case from Manufacturing Industry

Bernard Schmidt1, Lihui Wang2,1

1University of Skövde, Sweden; 2Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden

In sustainable manufacturing, the proper maintenance is crucial to minimise the negative environmental impact. In the context of Cloud Manufacturing, Internet of Things and Big Data, amount of available information is not an issue, the problem is to obtain the relevant information and process them in a useful way. In this paper a maintenance decision support system is presented that utilizes information from multiple sources and of a different kind. The key elements of the proposed approach are processing and machine learning method evaluation and selection, as well as estimation of long-term key performance indicators (KPIs) such as a ratio of unplanned breakdowns or a cost of maintenance approach. Presented framework is applied to machine tool linear axes. Statistical models of failures and Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) are built based on data from a population of 29 similar machines from the period of over 4 years and with use of proposed processing approach. Those models are used in simulation to estimate the long-term effect on selected KPIs for different strategies. Simple CBM approach allows, in the considered case, a cost reduction of 40% with the number of breakdowns reduced 6 times in respect to an optimal time-based approach.

10:00am - 10:50amWed-10.00-Gb: Keynote 4: Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithms for Semiconductor Manufacturing Scheduling
Session Chair: Gursel Suer
Presenter: Mitsuo Gen,Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Japan
Westin Grand Ballroom 
10:00am - 10:50am

Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithms for Semiconductor Manufacturing Scheduling

Mitsuo Gen1,2

1Fuzzy Logic Systems Institute, Tokyo, Japan; 2Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo, Japan

Many combinatorial optimization problems (COP) in the real world manufacturing systems impose on more complex issues, such as complex structure, nonlinear constraints, and multiple objectives to be handled simultaneously and make the problem intractable to the traditional approaches because of NP-hard COP. In order to develop an efficient solution algorithm that is in a sense “best solution” that is, whose reasonable computational time for NP-hard combinatorial problems met in practice, we have to consider the following very important issues:

1) Quality of solution, 2) Computational time and 3) Effectiveness of the nondominated solutions for multiobjective optimization problem (MOP).

Evolutionary algorithm (EA) is a subset of metaheuristics, a generic population-based metaheuristic such as genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and estimation of distribution algorithm (EDA). EA is based on principles from evolution theory, and it is very powerful and broadly applicable stochastic search and combinatorial optimization technique which is effective for solving various NP hard COP models.

This tutorial talk will be firstly introduced a brief survey of several metaheuristics based on EA such as GA, hybrid GA (HGA), multiobjective GA (MoGA), PSO and EDA for applying to various combinatorial optimization problems in real world semiconductor manufacturing systems. Secondly real applications based on hybrid metaheuristics will summarize the following recent semiconductor manufacturing scheduling topics:

1. HGA and PSO+GA for Reentrant Flowshop Scheduling in HDD Manufacturing Scheduling [9,10,12,13, 15],

2. Mo-HGA with TOPSIS for TFT-LCD Module Assembly Scheduling [7,14],

3. Cooperative EDA for Semiconductor Final Testing Scheduling [8] and

4. Hybrid EDA with multi-subpopulation for Semiconductor Manufacturing Scheduling

10:50am - 11:20amCoffee break
11:20am - 12:40pmWed-11.20-Ch: Design and Manufacturing of Personilized Products and Services 3
Session Chair: Dusan Sormaz
Session Chair: Ulas Yaman
Chittenden Room 
11:20am - 11:40am

3D Printed Composite Keyboard Switches

Alec Michael Peery, Dusan N. Sormaz

Ohio University, United States of America

This paper is a demonstration of how 3D printing can be used to create a composite (plastic and rubber) keyboard switch that is ergonomically superior to a traditional injection molded plastic switch. The prototype switch developed in this project aims to reduce impact forces from keyboard use exerted on user’s fingers by “cushioning” the act of bottoming out the switch during a key press. This concept is significant to industry because it aims to reduce overuse injuries caused from work on computer, a portion of the $20 Billion a year owed in worker compensation in the United States. A commercial “Cherry MX” keyboard switch has been modified through CAD modeling and 3D printing to incorporate dampening regions in the lower half of the switch housing. The switch housings were simultaneously 3D printed with plastic and rubber and their force dampening properties were tested robotically with a FLX Arm 3 axis robot and strain gauge tool head.

11:40am - 12:00pm

Innovative okro slicing machine design and manufacturing

Julian Chika Aririguzo, Chukwuma Henry Kadurumba

Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria, Nigeria

The design , kinematics and the dynamics analysis of an Okro slicing machine is necessary because of the labour intensive, time wasting, explosive to knife cutter, and other numerous problems imposed by manual slicing of the crop. The materials used for the design were sourced locally. Stainless steel materials were selected for the design because of its recommendation by the food standard organisation. The material do not corrode and contaminate food. Standard methods were used to evaluated the design. Mathematical methods were used to determine the kinematics and dynamics of the conveying system of the machine. The machine design specifications considered include; 8 blade: 8; one cutting disc, blade spacing of 5mm-10mm ,Okro shield thickness of 10mm; electric motor rating of 0.5 horse power single phase; motor speed of 1440rpm., Machine Capacity of 30.06 kg/hr. Kinematic and dynamic analysis of the screw conveyor system was also carried out.

12:00pm - 12:20pm

Tuning the Center of Gravity of 3D Printed Artifacts

Mert Keles, Ulas Yaman

Middle East Technical University, Turkey

In this study, we propose an Algorithms-Aided Design (AAD) approach to shift the center of gravity of 3D printed artifacts to a predefined location by creating a heterogeneous internal structure utilizing the same type of material. When the conventional design and fabrication pipeline of 3D printers and additive manufacturing machinery is employed, information about the interior of the artifacts is lost during the conversion of the design files to the STL file format. This de facto file standard only stores the boundary information of the objects. Even though the designed artifact has heterogeneous interior in the Computer Aided Design (CAD) software, after the conversion it becomes a homogeneous solid. Our method does not require an STL file, since we are using a query-based approach in which the built-in algorithm communicates with CAD software to acquire the necessary information about the design for manufacturing. According to the proposed pipeline, the designed artifact in CAD software is first decomposed into voxels having predefined sizes with AAD add-on software. Then, the desired center of gravity and the amount of extra material available are entered by the user and this additional material is distributed to the voxels by our developed algorithm so that the center of gravity of the final artifact is at the predefined location. At the end of the design process, filling percentages of some voxels is altered which made the structure internally heterogeneous. Then the final structure is directly sliced and the trajectories are converted to G-codes. Using the generated file, artifacts are printed on a desktop FFF printer. With the developed algorithm, we can modify the coordinates of the center of gravity of any shape by adjusting their interior structures and fabricate them on FFF printers.

12:20pm - 12:40pm

Research on Morphology and Semantics of Industrial Design for CNC Machine Tools

Xihui Yang1, Xin Zhou1, Kai Cheng2

1Department of Industrial Design, School of Mechano-Electronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xian, P.R. China; 2College of Engineering, Design and Physical Sciences Brunel University, Uxbridge UB8 3PH, UK

In recent years, the output of China's CNC machine tools has been rapidly increasing. China has become the world's largest country in production, consumption and imports of CNC machine tools. However, the technique, performance and industrial design of CNC machine tools need to be improved. Otherwise, China's CNC machine tools will lack competitiveness in the international market and the development of the entire industry will be constrained.

This dissertation firstly introduces the current research and development trend of CNC machine tools at home and abroad through various channels such as network research and data search. By researching and analyzing the morphological semantics of CNC machine tools on the market and based on big data, the authors created the morphological semantic expressions for the industrial design of CNC machine tools. Then, it analyzes the elements of morphological semantics of CNC machine tools’ industrial design, and presents the morphological semantic database of CNC machine tools. Finally, based on the research of virtual engineering technology and industrial design theories, a selected CNC machine tool is taken as an example. Starting from five aspects--function, form, color, material and aesthetics, the authors do some work on CNC machine tools’ industrial design and verify the theory and method proposed in this paper.

11:20am - 12:40pmWed-11.20-Ga: Digital, Cyber and Cloud Manufacturing 2
Session Chair: Djerdj Horvat
Session Chair: Li-Chih Wang
Great Southern Gallery 
11:20am - 11:40am

A conceptual approach for analysing manufacturing companies’ profiles concerning Industry 4.0 in emerging countries

Djerdj Horvat1, Thomas Stahlecker1, Andrea Zenker1, Christian Lerch1, Marko Mladineo2

1Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Germany; 2University of Split, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture

The digital transformation of economies and societies is broadly discussed both in industry and policy – digitalisation strongly affects the way we are living, working and producing. With its specific focus on digitalisation processes in industrial, i.e. manufacturing sectors, Industry 4.0 is oftentimes described as "forth industrial revolution" that follows the introduction of mechanical plants and production lines in the first and second industrial revolutions, as well as the introduction of electronics and information technologies in the third industrial revolution (Kagermann et al., 2013). Due to its fundamental changes in production modes, entering a phase of Industry 4.0 is often described as revolutionary process. Howev-er, since it is based on previous phases and develops automatisation towards the implementation of cyber-physical systems and people-machine-interactions, it also has an evolutionary character. In addition to increasing automation, this forth step embraces smart processes that enable to manage and control pro-duction processes in individual companies, as well as in complete value chains and networks. This im-plies shifting control of the production process from a centre-oriented perspective towards the various individual steps of the production that are managed by smart elements and products (Rüßmann et al., 2015; Monostori, 2014; Lee et al., 2015).

Manufacturing SMEs, particularly those located in emerging economies, have serious problems to grasp the overall idea of Industry 4.0 and particular concepts hereof. On the one hand, they are not able to re-late it to their specific domain and their particular business strategy. On the other hand, they experience problems in determining their state-of-development with regard to the Industry 4.0 vision and therefore fail to identify concrete fields of action, programs and projects. Regarding the adaption or adoption of specific Industry 4.0 related technologies for instance, a significant share of SMEs in emerging econo-mies is less integrated into national or regional innovation systems rather than being “isolated”, which hampers their technological upgrading to compete with the technological leading companies or countries worldwide. To overcome growing uncertainty, dissatisfaction and systemic interaction of manufacturing companies regarding the idea of Industry 4.0, new methods and tools are needed to provide guidance and support to align business strategies and operations (Schumacher et al., 2016; Mladineo et al., 2016)

In industrial research, Industry 4.0 has a strong focus on technologies, which are to be developed and/or implemented in manufacturing industries (Schumacher et al., 2016). The "digital factory" as core exam-ple of Industry 4.0 strongly relies on software systems for planning and controlling production processes, supply-chain-management, technologies for automated processing of logistics, technologies for people-machine-communication, cyber-physical systems, etc. However, in practice, Industry 4.0 is not exclu-sively related to technology. Namely, technological components need to be embedded in the companies' structure and processes as well as their "culture". Furthermore, the whole eco-system of a country, in-cluding the dominant institutions has a strong impact on the modernisation path of the companies. This refers to aspects of organisation and strategy, as well as to people, i.e. the persons working on all levels of manufacturing companies and ultimately to “system-shaping” elements (Schumacher et al., 2016).

In our paper, we will present a comprehensive conceptual approach for analysing and monitoring the readiness of manufacturing companies systematically towards Industry 4.0. This approach goes beyond the exclusive focus on technology and includes various aspects of organisation, management, employees and systemic interaction. While technology is considered in the domains of research, development and design, in production, in purchasing and in logistics (inbound and outbound), the dimension of manage-ment and strategy comprises aspects like IT management, the embedding of Industry 4.0 in companies' strategies, or product lifecycle management. The organisation of production and logistics as further di-mension to be considered in the context of Industry 4.0 refers to the tracing of production, to quality control as well as to inventory and delivery management. Finally, the dimension of employees and com-munication has a focus on the management of work order, skills and competence management as well as training measures.

Based on the conceptual framework consisting of various dimensions, the approach assumes further that manufacturing companies can be characterised by different "degrees of readiness for Industry 4.0". This follows the general rationale of evolution towards Industry 4.0 that takes place over time and helps to upgrade companies' technological base, as well as their knowledge base and experience. Of course, it can-not be expected for instance that companies in stage 4 exclusively apply e-learning or exclusively base their R&D and design technology on virtual reality. It is rather assumed that a mix of technologies, or-ganisational and strategic concepts, as well as communication and training techniques are used. It is fur-ther expected that companies may be assigned to diverging stages of sophistication in the different di-mensions and sub-dimensions. However, this conceptual approach is expected to deliver pertinent infor-mation concerning the current position of companies with respect to Industry 4.0 which will be of out-most importance to develop "tailor-made" strategic policy approaches for best possibly support companies in each stage.


Kagermann, H., Helbig, J., Hellinger, A. and Wahlster, W. (2013), Recommendations for implementing the stra-tegic initiative INDUSTRIE 4.0: Securing the future of German manufacturing industry; final report of the Industrie 4.0 Working Group, Forschungsunion.

Lee, J., Bagheri, B. and Kao, H.-A. (2015), “A cyber-physical systems architecture for industry 4.0-based manu-facturing systems”, Manufacturing letters, Vol. 3, pp. 18–23.

Mladineo, M., Horvat, D. and Veza, I. (Eds.) (2016), Case Study of Croatian manufacturing industry: Industry 4.0 Providers or Users?

Monostori, L. (2014), “Cyber-physical production systems. Roots, expectations and R&D challenges”, Procedia CIRP, Vol. 17, pp. 9–13.

Rüßmann, M., Lorenz, M., Gerbert, P., Waldner, M., Justus, J., Engel, P. and Harnisch, M. (2015), “Industry 4.0. The future of productivity and growth in manufacturing industries”, Boston Consulting Group, Vol. 9.

Schumacher, A., Erol, S. and Sihn, W. (2016), “A maturity model for assessing Industry 4.0 readiness and ma-turity of manufacturing enterprises”, Procedia CIRP, Vol. 52, pp. 161–166.

11:40am - 12:00pm

Development of a Cloud-based Advanced Planning and Scheduling System

Tzu-Han Hsu, Li-Chih Wang, Pei-Chun Chu

Tunghai University, Taiwan

Facing the global trend of Industry 4.0, many countries around the world proposed its industry policy of smart factory, in which, cyber-physical production system (CPPS) plays the critical role. A CPPS has the characteristics of distributed control, real time communication, computation and modularized. In Taiwan, most of the manufacturing industries (e.g., metal manufacturing, machinery and equipment manufacturing etc.) still heavily rely on the excel-based production planning and scheduling approach although ERP systems are widely used today. Furthermore, the advanced planning and scheduling (APS) systems have been developed over 15 years in Taiwan, however, very few of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) have implemented APS system due to the high implementation cost for satisfying the specific production characteristics and planning constraints.

Therefore, this research will consider the characteristics of manufacturing process, automation and digitalization of metal manufacturing, machinery and equipment manufacturing industry and develop a cloud-based advanced planning and scheduling (CAPS) system, the planning engine is based on an intelligent dynamic planning & scheduling (IDPS) system, which can dynamically and effectively generate production and operations schedule, and provide the timely visualized analysis data for production planners in SMEs. Applications of CAPS in a metal manufacturing company has been demonstrated in this paper.

12:00pm - 12:20pm

Multi-agent System for Cloud Manufacturing Process Planning

Dusan Sormaz, Arkopaul Sarkar

Ohio University, United States of America

In distributed manufacturing, production can be disseminated among a number of manufacturing partners, spread across o -shore,

near-shore and on-site. The fundamental problem of establishing such distributed production system is to select suitable manufacturing

resources (e.g. machine, materials, expertise) and orchestrate them in such a way that it provides sustainable value chain. In

this study, we propose a multi-agent framework, which is capable of searching for suitable manufacturing resources (expressed as

semantic web service) based on their capability and composing them to generate production plans. This paper presents the theoretical

foundation of agents based on Belief-Desire-Intention (BDI) paradigm and describes the components a BDI agent with Horn-DL

rules. Furthermore, a logic-based mapping from Horn-DL rule to the structure of web service is included to facilitate automatic

web-service discovery and orchestration.

12:20pm - 12:40pm

Industrial Monitoring with Drone Autonomous

Filipe Santos Aureliano1, Ariellen Aparecida Fidelis Costa2, Alexandre de Oliveira Lopes Lopes3

1Centro Universitário de Minas Gerais - UNIS MG, Brazil; 2Centro Universitário de Minas Gerais - UNIS MG, Brazil; 3Centro Universitário de Minas Gerais - UNIS MG, Brazil

The main focus of this work is to monitor, inspect and include safety patrols in large and medium-sized industrial facilities in a constant and precise manner, making the industries technically feasible, thus allowing a routine inspection of hazardous elements such as: pressure, boilers, gas tank, etc. in order to prevent an unplanned event from becoming an accident.

The concept is linked to the idea of ​​an intelligent factory using the resources of the technology of innovation where the reality of the organizations at the present time shows a tendency towards high automation, that is based on the physical cyber systems that is composed by computational elements, collaborative with the to emphasize an important role in the connection between the Internet of Things, that it is a technological revolution used to connect a network of computers, causing the physical and digital worlds to become one through devices that communicate with each other, Big Data which is a term that describes a huge set of data and cloud computing that uses memory and storage capacity making a tool accessible to any computer that has access to the internet.

In view of this, it refers to a fully autonomous unmanned aerial prototype, to enable and engage the industries to harness the power of the drones without the need for skilled and expensive operators, thus leading to cost savings that generated an economy, technically industries to become a trend for high automation.

11:20am - 12:40pmWed-11.20-Ne: CAD/CAM 2
Session Chair: Besmir Cuka
Session Chair: Sajid Ullah Butt
Neil Room 
11:20am - 11:40am

Thermo-Physical and Lubricating Properties of Silicon Carbide Nanofluid for Machining Operations

Ibrahim Ogu Sadiq1, Safian Sharif2, Mohd Azlan Suhaimi2, Noordin Mohd Yusof2, Dong-Won Kim3

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Minna, P.M.B 65, Minna, Nigeria; 2Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, 81310, Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia; 3Department of Industrial and Information Systems Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896, South Korea

Vegetable oils have been adjudged as a suitable replacement for conventional cutting fluids in metal cutting process because of its biodegradability, namely less toxic, high lubricity and environmental friendly. However, efficient performance of vegetable oil has been limited when machining at higher cutting speed or elevated temperature as the cutting fluid evaporates when in contact with cutting tools already heated to high cutting temperature. Thus, nanoparticles are added into base lubricating oils to improve their thermal and lubricating properties. The present work is to investigate the thermal and lubricating properties of a coconut oil based Silicon Carbide (SiC) nanofluid at varying concentration of 0.35wt.%, 0.7wt.% and 1.05wt.%. Thermal conductivity and viscosity of the nanofluid are measured with the aid of KD2 Pro thermal analyzer and LVDV-III Rheometer, respectively, while the four-ball wear and friction tester are used to measure the anti-wear property of the nanofluid. The behavior of the silicon carbide nanofluid under varying temperature and concentration is evaluated. It is expected that the nanoparticle inclusion could enhance the thermal and lubricating properties of the nanofluid.

11:40am - 12:00pm

Accuracy Analysis of 3-RSS Delta Parallel Manipulator

Mansoor Ghazi, Qasim Nazir, Sajid Ullah Butt, Aamer Ahmed Baqai

National University of Sciences and Technology, Pakistan

Accuracy analysis of parallel manipulators is the first step in selecting an appropriate error model for further design. In this paper, the kinematic accuracy of a Delta parallel manipulator is evaluated by Jacobian and geometric error models. The Jacobian (or condition number) based error models have been widely used for analysis and optimal design of parallel manipulators. However, as it is highlighted in this study, these models are dependent on the choice of particular matrix norm and do not capture the directional nature of accuracy. The geometric error model, derived for the Delta parallel manipulator, computes the exact value of positioning errors in task space that arise due to errors in joint space. The proposed model is used to compute overall as well as individual positioning errors along each DOF. It is revealed that; kinematic accuracy exhibits a highly directional nature over the reachable workspace. Moreover, individual errors along each DOF should be analyzed for complete evaluation of the accuracy of the Delta parallel manipulator.

12:00pm - 12:20pm

Integrating 3D Product Models with Assembly Line Balancing via Process Consumption

David Sly

Proplanner, United States of America

Validating assembly precedence and generating shop floor work instructions for highly configured assemblies involving over 1000 components can be very time consuming and inaccurate. This paper will define and demonstrate a process for mapping the 3D product assembly model to the Process Routing which is linked to the assembly line. A key enabler of this technique is a method to map the consumption of 3D model components in the process plan via a configured BOM and Routing using Model and Option rules. This method will be shown.

11:20am - 12:40pmWed-11.20-Pa: Collaborative Robotics in Smart Manufacturing 2
Session Chair: Harry Pierson
Session Chair: Lars Larsen
Park Room 
11:20am - 11:40am

Meeting The Needs of Industry in Smart Manufacture - The Definition of a New Profession and a Case Study in Providing the Required Skillset.

Seamus Gordon1, Alan Ryan1, Shane Loughlin2

1University of Limerick, Ireland; 2ESE Academy Ltd. Ireland

Industry 4.0 is the term commonly used in Europe to describe the combination of a number of emerging and rapidly evolving technologies that represents the state of the art in the Manufacturing Industry today. Going beyond simply the automation of manufacturing systems, Industry 4.0 involves the convergence of information and automation technology to create cyber-physical systems which virtualize and optimise the manufacturing process on a global scale. It is of vital importance to the Irish economy that Ireland is at the leading edge to maintain and enhance its competitiveness.

The traditional unidisciplinary or multidisciplinary engineering approach has been extremely successful for the provision of Mechatronics Engineers for Industry 3.0. But the complexity of the cyber physical systems which must be implemented as part of Industry 4.0 require a much more comprehensive systems engineering approach. This has resulted in the requirement for the new occupation of Equipment Systems Engineer (ESE) who has been introduced to and are capable of utilize an interdisciplinary or even anti-disciplinary approach.

This paper describes the development and implementation of an Industry-Led Masters programme at the University of Limerick which was designed specifically to meet the unique skillset required for this rapidly developing field. The development of a unique Industry 4.0 teaching space is described as well as the creation of three manufacturing cells and their 'digital twins' which recreates the environment found in the field and allows Virtual and Augmented Reality technologies to be used to interact remotely with the equipment. Close collaboration with Industry Experts is a strong feature of the delivery of the programme.

The teaching methods were also novel and an implementation of the CDIO method is described.

The programme recently received the award of 'Best New Masters Programme' in a field of competitors across all Irish Universities and disciplines.

11:40am - 12:00pm

A Framework for Collaborative Robotic Task Specification

Steven L. Brown, Harry A. Pierson

University of Arkansas, United States of America

Implementation of automated robotic solutions for complex tasks currently faces a few major hurdles. For instance, lack of effective sensing and task variability – especially in high-mix/low-volume processes – creates too much uncertainty to reliably hard-code a robotic work cell. Current collaborative frameworks generally focus on integrating the sensing required for a physically collaborative implementation. While this paradigm has proven effective for mitigating uncertainty by mixing human cognitive function and fine motor skills with robotic strength and repeatability, there are many instances where physical interaction is impractical but human reasoning and task knowledge is still needed. The proposed framework consists of key modules such as a path planner, path simulator, and result simulator. An integrated user interface facilitates the operator to interact with these modules and edit the path plan before ultimately approving the task for automatic execution by a manipulator that need not be collaborative. The software modules are integrated using the Robotic Operating System. Application of the collaborative framework is illustrated for a pressure washing task in a remanufacturing environment that requires one-off path planning for each part. The framework can also be applied to various other tasks, such as spray-painting, sandblasting, deburring, grinding, and shot peening.

12:00pm - 12:20pm

Digital twins of human-robot collaboration in a production setting

Ali Ahmad Malik, Arne Bilberg

University of Southern Denmark, Denmark

This paper aims to present a digital twin model to support the design, build and operational activities of a human-machine assembly system. Computer simulations are used to develop a digital counterpart of a human-robot collaborative work environment in a production setting. The digital counterpart remains updated during the life cycle of the production system by continuously mirroring the physical system for quick and safe embed of continuous improvements. The case of a manufacturing company with human-robot work teams is presented for developing and validating the digital twin.

12:20pm - 12:40pm

Path Planning of Cooperating Industrial Robots Using Evolutionary Algorithms

Lars Larsen1, Alfons Schuster1, Jonghwa Kim2, Michael Kupke1

1German Aerospace Center (DLR); 2University of Science & Technology (UST)

Nowadays, aerospace components made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) which are manufactured by a dry-fiber depositing process are produced almost exclusively by hand. In this type of process, hundreds of textile blanks with different contours are stored in a tool mould. For large components such as an aircraft fuselage, it is also necessary to transport the flexible blanks with cooperating robots. For this purpose, a system was developed which allows to generate robot paths on the basis of computer aided design (CAD) data, which is automatically extended by information such as pickup and drop points for the robot. The system has already been successfully tested with sampling-based algorithms on a robot system with two KUKA KR210 R3100 robots on a common linear axis. However, the use of sampling-based algorithms a heuristic must be developed to solve the redundancy of linear axis which is usually only functional for the current scenario and must be adapted for another one. Evolutionary algorithms offer the advantage that they are also able to find a solution for the linear axis independent of the scenario.

In this work. A path planning system that uses evolutionary algorithms to calculate collision-free paths reliably for cooperating robots on a common linear axis will be presented.

11:20am - 12:40pmWed-11.20-Th: Robotics and CIM 3
Session Chair: Varun Gopinath
Session Chair: Alireza Zarreh
Thurber Room 
11:20am - 11:40am

Stochastic Search Methods for Mobile Manipulator Calibration

Samuel Yaw Amoako-Frimpong1, Henry Medeiros1, Jeremy Marvel2, Roger Bostelman2

1Marquette University, United States of America; 2National Institute of Standards and Technology, United States of America

Mobile manipulators are a potential solution to the increasing need for additional flexibility and mobility in industrial applications. However, they tend to lack the accuracy and precision achieved by fixed manipulators, especially in scenarios where both the manipulator and the autonomous vehicle move simultaneously. This paper analyzes the problem of dynamically evaluating the positioning error of mobile manipulators. In particular, it investigates the use of Bayesian methods to predict the position of the end-effector in the presence of uncertainty propagated from the mobile platform. The precision of the mobile manipulator is evaluated through its ability to intercept retroreflective markers using a photoelectric sensor attached to the end-effector. Compared to a deterministic search approach, we observed improved robustness with comparable search times, thereby enabling effective calibration of the mobile manipulator.

11:40am - 12:00pm

Collaborative Assembly on a Continously Moving Line - An automotive Case Study

Varun Gopinath1, Kerstin Johansen1, Stefan Axelsson2, Åke Gustafson2

1Linköping University, Sweden; 2Volvo Cars, Torslanda, Gothenburg, Sweden

To ensure a safe working environment, international

safety standards suggest conducting a task-based risk assessment

followed by appropriate risk reduction measures. The first step

is the identification of hazards which can allow the risk assessing

team to evaluate the hazards and suggest measures to mitigate the

risks. In this article, an automotive case study will be presented,

where humans and a large industrial robot complete assembly

tasks together within the collaborative workspace. The safety

focussed layout of the collaborative workstation will be presented

which is the outcome of a risk assessment program along with

the hazards that were identified will also be presented along with

measures to mitigate the effects of these hazards.

12:00pm - 12:20pm

Posture-dependent stability prediction of a milling industrial robot based on inverse distance weighted method

Chen Chen1, Fangyu Peng2, Rong Yan1, Yuting Li1, Zheng Fan1, Dequan Wei1

1National NC System Engineering Research Center, School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan 430074, China; 2State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan 430074, China

During robotic milling process, vibration is one of mainly factors that affect machining accuracy and surface quality, due to the low stiffness of robot structure. Robotic milling stability is dependent on the frequency response function (FRF) at tool tip, which is posture-dependent within the work volume. An approach to rapidly predict the industrial robot stability of any posture is presented in this paper. A lot of tool tip positions are arranged to conduct the impacting tests. For each tool tip position, five corresponding robot postures are obtained by determining the redundant freedom and solving inverse kinematics problem. FRFs at the tool tip of all tested robot postures are identified, and modal parameters are acquired. Based on the sample information that contains tested robot postures and corresponding modal parameters, inverse distance weighted (IDW) model is utilized to predict tool tip FRFs at any posture. Consequently, the milling stability lobe diagrams of robot at different postures are available to be obtained. Finally, the approach is proven to be feasible by performing robot milling experiments.

12:20pm - 12:40pm

Cybersecurity Analysis of Smart Manufacturing System Using Game Theory Approach and Quantal Response Equilibrium

Alireza Zarreh1, Can Saygin1,2, Hung-Da Wan1,2, Yooneun Lee1,2, Alejandro Bracho Avila1, Li Nie3

1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78249, USA; 2Center for Advanced Manufacturing and Lean Systems, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78249, USA; 3School of Intelligent Manufacturing and Control Engineering, Shanghai Polytechnic University, 2360 Jinhai Road, Pudong District, Shanghai, China,201209

Recently cyber security issues have been taken more seriously because of highly increasing integration of industrial internet of things and manufacturing systems. These integrations make smart manufacturing systems more vulnerable to cyber threats. It is widely accepted that risk analysis is a function of (1) Likelihood of Attacks against an asset and (2) the Consequences of such attacks. From a manufacturer’s viewpoint, the second variable is easier to determine based on the system’s configuration. On the other side, forecasting behavior of attackers to estimate likelihood of attack is far more difficult. In this paper, firstly cost functions are considered as financial loss to address the consequences of attacks. Then game theory approach is utilized to model the rivalry of cyber attackers and the manufacturing systems as the defender. Later, as a statistical approach to solve the game, the Quantal Response Equilibrium (QRE) is utilized to find the likelihood of attack and predict the behavior of attackers. Finally, the attackers’ behavior is investigated under different circumstances to find the best strategy to defend the system against likely attacks and analyze the cybersecurity risks in manufacturing systems.

12:40pm - 2:30pmLunch on your own
2:30pm - 4:00pmTrip to Ohio University
Meet 2:15 - 2:30 in Foyer for trip to Athens for closing ceremony and tour
4:00pm - 5:00pmTour Athens downtown area
5:00pm - 6:30pmOhio University Campus Tour
7:00pm - 10:00pmDinner and Closing Ceremony
Athens County Community Center.
10:00pm - 11:30pmReturn to Columbus
Date: Thursday, 14/Jun/2018
8:00am - 12:00pmThu-08.00-Ou: Dayton Air Force Museum Tour
8:15am - 12:00pmThu-08.15-Ou: Honda Plant Tour
9:00am - 12:30pmThu-09.00-Ou: EWI Tour

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