139. The WIRES Experiment: Tools and Strategies for Robotized Switchgear Cabling
1University of Bologna, Italy; 2Università degli Studi della Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Viale Abramo Lincoln, 5, 81100 Caserta, Italy; 3Università degli Studi di Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 2, 40136 Bologna, Italy
This paper presents the preliminary results obtained within the WIRES experiment. This experiment aims to automatize the switchgear wiring process by using industrial manipulators and properly designed hardware and software tools. The challenging objective of the experiment is the development of a proper computer vision algorithm able to detect the switchgear components and a novel gripper, with an integrated tactile sensor, able to manipulate wires and simultaneously operate on screw/clip type connection points. Another objective of the experiment is the development of a software package able to optimize the wiring sequence and to plan the robot trajectories, based on the CAD data coming from the switchgear design software. The concept of such a software tool is here presented.
195. Towards intelligent autonomous sorting of unclassified nuclear wastes
1University of Genoa, Italy; 2Czech Technical University, Czech Institute of Informatics, Robotics and Cybernetics, 166 66 Prague 6, Zikova 4, Czech Republic; 3National Radiation Protection Institute, 140 00 Prague 4, Bartoškova 28, Czech Republic; 4Universita degli Studi Di Genova, Dept. of Mechanics and Machine Design, 16145 Genova, Via Opera Pia 15A, Italy; 5Center for Research and Technology Hellas, Information Technologies Institute, 6th km Xarilaou - Thermi, 57001 Thessaloniki, Greece
Sorting of old and mixed nuclear wastes for repackaging on the base of their intensity of radiation and compressibility has been presenting a process bottleneck that demands an active human involvement. The main one coincides with the operation of sorting itself: humans perform the picking and separation of the different materials using remotely operated arms and, either, see the scene from a single camera or look at it through a thick shielded glass. They have no or extremely poor depth perception and no tactile information. The job has been slow and tiring; shifts are short because the quickly incoming loss of attention may result in sorting mistakes and dramatic slow down; picking of small items such as tiny highly radioactive springs is achieved after several attempts. Consequently automation of the process is utmost desirable to reduce the operating costs, ergonomics and plant throughput. In the framework of the newly funded European project ECHORD++, experiment RadioRoSo, a pilot robotic cell is being developed and validated against industrial requirements on a range of sorting tasks. Off-the shelve industrial robots are involved, the dual-arm robot from past EC funded project CloPeMa. The custom gripper, vision feedback and new manipulation skills have been under development. This paper presents application context, cell layout and sorting approach.
211. Conceptual Design and Control Strategy of a Robotic Cell for Precision Assembly in Radar Antenna Systems
1MBDA Italia Spa, Via Carlo Calosi 105, 80070 Bacoli, Italy; 2Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli; 3Department of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli
Dip-Brazing is a metal-joining process in which two or more metal items are joined together using a low-temperature melting element as filler. In telecommunication field, this process is used to fabricate radar antenna systems. The process begins with the assembly of the parts constituting the antenna and the thin filler sheet used to join the parts. The mechanical deformations of the micro-pins of the parts allow to obtain a more compact mechanical assembly, before than the antenna system is subjected to an immersion cycle used for adjoining the parts. In this work, we present the design of the robotic cell to automate the assembly procedure in the aluminum dip-brazing of antenna in MBDA missile systems. In particular, we propose a robotic cell using two stations: i) assembly, using a SCARA manipulator; ii) riveting, using a three-axis cartesian robot designed for positioning a radial riveting unit. Motion control of the robots and scheduling of the operations is presented. Experiments simulated in a virtual environment show an almost perfect tracking of the designed trajectories. The standardization of the procedure as well as the reduction of its execution time is thus achieved for the industrial scenario.
292. Micro-robotic handling solutions for PCB (re-)manufacturing
1Institute of Industrial Technologies and Automation, National Research Council, Via A. Corti, 12, 20133 - Milan, Italy; 2Institute of Industrial Technologies and Automation, National Research Council, Via P. Lembo, 38/F, 70124 - Bari, Italy
In the last decades, electronic products have been widely investigated, leading to the development of enabling technologies, processes and devices in many fields, including smart manufacturing, automotive, aerospace, and biomedical. Their progressive miniaturization calls for smaller and smaller components integrating an increasing number of functionalities. Moreover, the trend towards the miniaturization requires the optimization of the PCB (Printed Circuit Board) structure and components layout.
This approach is very beneficial in terms of achievable performance; however, due to the large amount of PCBs in different products, new issues related to the remanufacturing and reuse of the end-of-life products arise. Recent industrial trends strongly promote these concepts as paradigms of the so called “circular economy”.
This scenario introduces further challenges, related to demanding specifications, to be addressed with enhanced or new (re-)manufacturing processes, innovative devices and tools, and advanced strategies, on which several research groups investigate, proposing different solutions. In the (re-)manufacturing processes of PCBs, the manipulation of micro-components requires high precision, reliability and high throughput, that are difficult to be achieved at the micro-scale due to the adhesion forces often hindering the process, therefore limiting the overall performance of the conventional systems.
In this context, the current paper discusses some challenging applications exploiting novel automatic solutions on different complexity levels of the process, from the component to the whole system, including devices, tools and robotized work-cells. These applications include the reballing of BGA (Ball Grid Array) packages for the remanufacturing process, the precise positioning of SMT (Surface Mount Technology) components in PCB structures such as conventional rigid planar PCB (2D packaging technology) or innovative embedded PCB (3D packaging technology), inspection and quality control.
The paper discusses the precise manipulation of components, such as SMD resistors and capacitors with sizes down to 0.2 x 0.125 x 0.125 mm, as well as sorting and positioning of solder balls with diameter ranging from 0.3 to 1 mm on BGA package surfaces.
Different approaches and solutions are reviewed including a vacuum micro-gripper integrating an innovative release system and a store-and-place device, able to single-sort micro-spheres with high throughput. Both the types of tools have been prototyped and tested and compared with conventional commercial tools.
At a work-cell level, two systems are discussed: the former, in accordance to the micro-factory paradigm, represents a vision-based robotized micro-manipulation and assembly work-cell; the latter includes a collaborative robot able to safely interact with the human operator and other robots for the handling and inspection of components. Finally, at a factory level, these two work-cells have been integrated to set up a pilot plant to support different PCB remanufacturing phases.
179. Virtual Prototyping of a Flexure-based RCC Device for Automated Assembly
1Univeristy of Genoa, Italy; 2nzo Ferrari” Department of Engineering, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via P. Vivarelli, 10, 41125 Modena, Italy
The actual use of Industrial Robots (IR) for assembly systems requires the exertion of suitable strategies allowing to overcome shortcomings about IR poor precision and repeatability. In this paper, the practical issues that emerge during common "peg-in-hole" assembly procedures are discussed. In particular, the use of passive Remote Center of Compliance (RCC) devices, capable of compensating the IR non-optimal performance in terms of repeatability, is investigated. The focus of the paper is the design and simulation of a flexure-based RCC that allows the prevention of jamming, due to possible positioning inaccuracies during peg insertion. The proposed RCC architecture comprises a set of flexural hinges, whose behavior is simulated via a CAE tool that provides built-in functions for modelling the motion of compliant members. For given friction coefficients of the contact surfaces, these numerical simulations allow to determine the maximum lateral and angular misalignments effectively manageable by the RCC device.