109. Architecture and Implementation of an Interface for Intelligent Tools in Machine Tools
University of Stuttgart, Germany
Nowadays a growing number of additional features, provided by intelligent tools, are used in machine tools to improve the quality of machined products or to enhance functionality of machine tools. This brings some problems concerning interfaces as each manufacturer of additional tools uses his own interfaces, which may exclude others. Additionally, developing a new intelligent tool always includes development of solutions to transfer energy and data from the static environment into the turning tool. This is a big obstacle especially for small and medium enterprises. Having manufacturer dependent interfaces the users of intelligent tools must put a high effort into integration. Every time a new manufacturer’s tool is to be used, this integration has to be done again.
A new standardized interface for intelligent tools tries to solve this problem. It includes electrical contacts at the HSK flange contact surface for the transmission of energy and data and a device to transmit energy and data contactless from the static environment of the spindle to the rotor of the spindle. Furthermore it includes an electronic component which integrates the additional tool into the Ethernet based bus of the machine. The communication can be configured by the user of the interface in two ways: An easy way giving little, but nevertheless for most applications sufficient, capabilities. Second a solution, which gives almost full control to the user, but is significantly more complex to use.
Viewing the intelligent tool alone or together with its interface to the bus as a Cyber Physical System (CPS) makes it possible to gain further use of the tools. Its data can be used for several more sophisticated tasks including condition monitoring, optimization of processes or big data scenarios.
In this paper the concept of the interface is presented, together with the overall system architecture which was developed. The transfer to practical use will presented by an actual implementation.
134. Novel method for selection of drive motor in paperboard forming press utilizing multi-dynamics model
Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland
Due to environmental factors, paperboard as a natural cellulosic fibre material is being used increasingly as a packaging material. Applying an understanding of the material thickness properties of paperboard to a multi-body dynamics analysis makes it is possible to simplify the machine construction and prototype phase of a machine design of a paperboard forming press. The method involves integrating an empirical multi-dynamics simulation model using commercially available software to save time in mechanical design. This work concentrates on effect of thickness in pressing force of 4 different SBS-coated paperboards. Experimental force is measured utilizing linear servo driven press and the derived data is plotted into into Matlab as polynomial curve function and utilized in multi-dynamics program Adams by Simulink-interface. The semi-empirical practical method with light computation time presented in this paper can be utilized for various fibre materials and pressing techniques to streamline the design phase.
137. Data and Information Handling in Assembly Information Systems – A Current State Analysis
1Volvo Group Trucks Operations, Sweden; 2Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg 412 96, Sweden; 3University West, Trollhättan 461 86, Sweden
Products become more complex as the general technology development reaches new levels. These new technologies enable manufacturing companies to offer better products with new functionalities to their customers. Complex products require adequate manufacturing systems to cope with changing product requirements. In general, manufacturing of this type of products entails complex structured and rigid IT systems. Due to the system’s complexity and comprehensive structure, it becomes challenging to optimize the information flow. There are improvement potentials in how such systems could be better structured to meet the demands in complex manufacturing situations. This is particularly true for the vehicle manufacturing industry where growth in many cases has occurred through acquisitions, resulting in increased levels of legacy IT systems. Additionally, this industry is characterized by high levels of product variety which contributes to the complexity of the manufacturing processes. In manual assembly of these products, operations are dependent on high quality assembly work instructions to cope with the complex assembly situations. This paper presents a current state analysis of data and information handling in assembly information systems at multiple production sites at a case company manufacturing heavy vehicles. On basis of a certain set of characterizing manual assembly tasks for truck, engine and transmission assembly, this work focuses on identifying what data that is used in manufacturing engineering processes and IT systems to produce assembly work instructions. This work aims to identify gaps in the information flow between manufacturing engineering and shop floor operations.
145. Effects of mould surface roughness on press forming process of polymer coated paperboard
Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland
In paperboard press forming the forming forces are transmitted on the formed substrate by controlling the sliding of the blank with a blank holding force. A set value of the force and the friction between the tool surfaces and processed material define the force transferred on the formed substrate. Mould surface roughness is one of the main factors affecting the magnitude of friction. A series of surface roughness measurements was made to investigate the surface roughness in different areas of two different blank holders to determine a sufficient quality for the tool surfaces. Also the static friction coefficients of formed substrates were determined and the friction force distribution was investigated. The results show that the effect of mould temperature on friction force can be reduced significantly by mould surface polishing, making the press-forming process easier to adjust. Hence, the polishing of mould surfaces can be recommended.
16. A theoretical background for the reconfigurable layout problem
University of Coimbra, Portugal
The traditional layout problem has been studied for decades. It concerns the machine’s placement to appropriate locations, considering a single planning period in order to minimize material handling costs.
The current market context is characterized by global competition between industries, high product variety and variable volumes. Those are key factors that requires the launch of products with a short life cycle and a high customization degree. In this context, the layout configuration must be able to meet the needs of a dynamic and uncertain environment, being more flexible, modular and easily reconfigurable. Furthermore, besides considering only material handling costs when designing a layout, as in traditional approaches, increasing customers’ responsiveness through shorter lead times and lower work in process levels must also be taken into account.
The main strategies proposed to cope with flexibility issues in layout design are: (1) dynamic layouts, (2) robust layouts and (3) reconfigurable layouts. The dynamic and the robust layout problem consider multiple future periods when considering the layout design, assuming that production data are available for future planning periods. But, in manufacturing systems, changes in production requirements usually are unexpected or only known slightly ahead of the next production cycle. Thus, the reconfigurable layout problem (RLP) seems to be the most adequate option for real manufacturing problems since it considers only production data concerning the next planning period.
RLP can be defined as “the ability of a layout to rearrange rapidly and frequently, with minimal effort, to adjust its configuration to new circumstances, considering system operational performance and providing the exact capacity and functionality needed, when needed”. Therefore, the RLP aligns for the notion of real-time enterprise, because the changes in the layout configuration should occur rapidly and be readily available, while the production system keeps operating on the edge by doing real-time layout adjustment with live data.
The main objective of this paper is to propose a theoretical background for the RLP by conducting a systematic literature review (SLR) about the subject, which is a formal approach that adopts a replicable, scientific and transparent process to locate, select, analyses, synthesize and report evidence.
In this paper, the process followed to conduct the SLR about the RLP is described, in which 60 papers were identified. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of those papers are also conducted and described. The results are presented and discussed, contributing to a better understanding of the RLP and its implication for manufacturing systems. Furthermore, research gaps and trends are identified and future research directions are pointed out.
169. Processing of real-time Data in Big Manufacturing Systems
Technische Universität Dresden, Germany
Today’s factories consists of many - too different - equipments, each with its own automation system - how SPS, PLC, MES, ... - and its own possible different and divergent real time clocks. Most of them work event based and the working cycle depends on events and will be different on different situations.
If that systems measure and store data there will be a lot of data not fitting really together using there timestamps. Let assume that the equipments sensors measure some values with a clock pulse every 10 seconds, sometimes maybe 9 or 11 seconds (jitter) and not at the same point of time over all equipments (clock drift).
After all we have data measured at the same point of time but with different stored timestamps because of the different clocks. If we look further to trends like industry 4.0 this behavior would be even more worse. For the industry 4.0 data from different manufacturer should come together, so there are even more differences in time based data.
One possible solution is storing data not time based but store it “OPERAND” based. This means that the measured data of the processes should be aggregated and stored with relation to the product that has been processed. With this type of data relation it's easy to combine data over manufactures. But in real world there are unfortunately many systems that only store data time based. Even if we want to aggregate this time based data and put it to the processed operands we have to handle the time based one.
Also to do dynamical or time series analysis we have to use time based measurements, so there is no way to get out of the problems of handling such data. Evaluation of data from only one equipment should not be problematic, because there should be only one clock. But if there are different sampling rates and the normal jitter, its not that easy any more. Think about an equipment with same processing and measurement chambers. Moving the operand from processing to measurement takes some time so the corresponding processing data for the measurement is shifted in time. For correct use of such data the correct ones have to put together. Moving the data against each other is the way to go, but if the data is not equidistant (jitter, …) many values would not fit together after that time correction. Our developed solution for that is called a “fuzzy join” that fit data together, that have nearly the same timestamp. That “nearly” depends e.g. on the sampling rates of the signals. So its important to know a correct rate even on data with gaps – which are ignored for calculation - over long time period.
In ADM - a process analysing tool – all of this and many further problems are handled transparent for the user. Of course better/non faulty data quality (no jitter, only equidistant rates, …) would avoid such problems, but that’s not the normal case in real world.
66. Modelling Capabilities for Functional Configuration of Part Feeding Equipment
1Tampere University of Technology, Finland; 2Department of Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Systems, Tampere University of Technology, 33720 Tampere, Finland
This paper introduces a configuration framework for automatic configuration of production systems. The proposed framework consists of three key aspects; 1) functional configuration, 2) interface configuration and 3) behavioral configuration, that together offers the ability to automatically identify production resources, and aggregate them to form a production system. The main focus of this work is to model functional capabilities to facilitate automatic suggestion of part feeding resources, and exemplifies different approaches to model part feeding capabilities.
59. Improving Production Changeovers and the Optimisation: A Simulation-based Virtual Process Approach and its Application Perspectives
Brunel University, United Kingdom
Manufacturers have to compete in the global marketplace responsively in a continuous sustainable manner. To be responsive to the customers’ dynamic needs and lower the production cost, manufacturers often have to produce a verity of products on single production system along with agility and sustainability. It takes time and resources when a production system switching from one product to another particularly in a frequent time-stringent mode.
In this paper, a simulation-based approach is proposed by taking a holistic view of overall production changeover cycles while addressing the sustainability in the production process. The need of overall industrial sustainability in a production system is increasingly paramount due to several established and emerging factors. To improve the capability of the production system one of the important factors is reducing and managing production changeover time better. The simulations are the enabling technology for virtual process mapping, undertaking quantitative analysis and the process optimization. An industrial case study is carried out on a food production plant. The production performance can be improved by identifying and eliminating non-value-added activities through process mapping and complexity reduction. To achieve maximum production and waste reduction, virtual production plant model is developed using Arena software by comparing existing production setup. The virtual simulation-based case study includes the changes in facility lay out, process automation, process mapping, manufacturing complexity issues, changeover cycles and sustainability in the production system.
384. Particle Size Distribution Estimation Of A Mixture Of Regular And Irregular Sized Particles Using Acoustic Emissions
Cranfield University, United Kingdom
This works investigates the possibility of using Acoustic Emissions (AE) to estimate the Particle Size Distribution (PSD) of a mixture of particles that comprise of particles of different densities and geometry. The experiments carried out involved the mixture of a set of glass and polyethylene particles that ranged from 150-212 microns and 150-250microns respectively and an experimental rig that allowed the free fall of a continuous stream of particles on a target plate which the AE sensor was placed. By using a time domain based multiple threshold method, it was observed that the PSD of the particles in the mixture could be estimated.
371. A novel methodology to integrate Manufacturing Execution Systems with the lean manufacturing approach
Politecnico di Torino, Italy
In order to deal with global competition, industries have undertaken many efforts directed to improve manufacturing efficiency. From a broad perspective, two possible approaches are the adoption of lean manufacturing methodologies or the implementation of information tools: for several years, these two approaches have been assumed to be mutually exclusive. The present work aims to define a methodology to integrate Manufacturing Execution Systems with the lean manufacturing approach. A case-study in the field of aeronautics is presented to validate the method.
352. Physical Rigging for Physical Models and Posable Joint Designs Based on Additive Manufacturing Technology
The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong S.A.R. (China)
In 3D computer animation, there is a lot of ongoing research in rigging mesh or solid models so that the models can be easily converted to articulated characters that can generate vivid motion. Even though these articulated characters (can be an animal or a human character) can exhibit desired motion in computer, yet the joints that facilitate the motion are not actually designed at all. Instead, the joints are modeled as a set of equations defining the nature and range of the motion. In many cases, it is desirable to produce physical models of the animated characters for a variety of purposes such as pose evaluation by a team of engineers from different background. When a physical model of the animated character needs to be fabricated, all rigged joints must be clearly designed with consideration of mobility and manufacturability. In this paper, a physical rigging methodology is proposed. A simple joint design for physical rigging of articulated characters is also proposed. The proposed joint design can be easily used for both revolute and omnidirectional motion. Using the proposed joint design, it allows a physical character to assume any poses that are within the designed motion range after fabricated by additive manufacturing (AM) technologies. A number of sample designs have been fabricated using two popular AM technologies to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
298. Machining accuracy improvement by compensation of machine and workpiece deformation
SIlesian University of Technology, Poland
Current state of art in field of CNC machining systems is impressive. Advanced CNC machine tools themselves are really complicated mechatronic devices with a lot of possibilities and options, which give a potential to improve the accuracy and efficiency of production systems but it also means that the users’ knowledge must be at an appropriate level. Some compensation systems operate in the background to enhance the stability of machining and reduce the risk of errors form thermal conditions and geometrical errors influence. Mechatronic drive systems are flexible and able to adopt reducing the dynamic errors as a machining task. A lot of configuration options and a wide range of intelligent technologies are very useful and helpful but wrong driving adjustments may disturb production with wrong manufactured parts.
During the work at the implementation of flexible machining system for autonomous production some challenging difficulties were found. First of them is the problem with high accuracy machining of workpieces of thin wall and complicated shape. Applying high technology machine tools and specially prepared procedures cause that most of machining errors are minimized e.g. geometrical or drive position errors. Even thermal deformations of machines are effectively compensated. For workpieces of a regular shape, the achieved machining accuracy is satisfactory but for workpieces of a complex shape and thin walls form light alloys machining (e.g helicopters’ gearbox cases) it is still difficult to find proper environmental conditions without separating the machine form from among others outer temperature impact. While considering flexible machining systems, it is impossible to cover it completely or to stabilize the temperature in the production hall effectively. When the temperature outside and inside the machine tool is changing, it is necessary to compensate the influence of that by positioning systems adjustments or application of geometric active compensation units. Proposal of the procedure for adjustment and self-testing is prepared and verified successfully on the existing new flexible machining systems. Another problem is that if the temperature inside the machine is changing, the workpiece’s temperature is changing too and the shape is distorted, so that the machining accuracy is decreasing even if machine tool’s active systems compensate the machine’s thermal deformations.
An approach to improve the machining accuracy with high accuracy machining systems by using special adjustment procedures and additional workpiece’s distortion compensations are presented in the paper.
265. Efficiency & sustainability model to design and manage two-stage logistic networks
1Department of Industrial Engineering, Alma Mater Studiorum – University of Bologna, Viale del Risorgimento 2, 40136, Bologna, Italy; 2University of Padova, Italy
The distribution and storage efficiency together with the environmental sustainability are mandatory targets to consider when designing and managing modern supply chain (SC) networks. The current literature continuously looks for quantitative multi-perspective strategies and models, including and best balancing such issues that often diverge.
This paper presents and applies a bi-objective optimization model to best design and manage two-stage logistic networks looking for the best trade-off between the SC stock level and the building and distribution environmental impact. The existence of good balance confirms the possibility to reduce the average SC stock level without a relevant increase of the emissions due to frequent replenishments.
240. Skull Repair Using Active Contour Models
National Taipei University of Technology, Taiwan
Skull defects will result in high risk of brain infection and low brain protection. In order to avoid risks and re-injury, we need to reconstruct the defect by grafting bone onto the deficient region. With rapid customization manufacturing of additive manufacturing (AM) and 3D printing (3DP) technology, the fitted shape of a skull prosthesis can be fabricated accurately and efficiently during cranioplasty surgery. However, an unfitted skull prosthesis made of artificial polymer or a metal implant can cause repeated infection, which may need an additional surgery. This paper presents a method to create suitable geometric graphics of skull defects to be applied in skull repair by using active contour models. The active contour models can be adjusted in every tomography slice, and the curves that represent the defect in the skull bone can be modeled. The generated graphics can adequately mimic and compensate for a fitted curvature. Clinical surgeons will be able to define, process, and implant a customized prosthesis to patients very quickly in surgery with this research. Especially, patients who have urgently skull defect problem can be solved and obtained maximum surgical quality.
238. Considering the performance bonus balance in the Vehicle Routing Problem with Soft Time Windows
National Taipei University of Technology, Taiwan
In the field of operations research, the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (VRPTW) has been widely studied because it is extensively used in practical applications. Some situations in the practice are discussed in the most of past relevant research, i.e., time window and vehicle capability. However, the performance bonus is not considered. In most logistics companies, performance bonus is calculated by the piece. But it is a problem that the method of calculation is not fair for all staff. In this paper, the model not only considers the performance bonus into the VRPTW, but also changes the calculation method to make a load balance between every staff. In the same time, it also makes the calculation of performance bonus more fair for all staff.
231. Dynamic coordination within a Lean Enterprise
TU Braunschweig, Institute for Advanced Industrial Management, Germany
Many manufacturing enterprises act in a dynamic and partially unpredictable market. This is shown through shorter product life cycles, reduced forecast accuracy within the supply chain and frequently new product launches. In fact, there are strong fluctuations in the overall production volume and job profile. Rigid enterprises encounter on significant problems, if they are not able to coordinate targets precisely and quickly to all processes of a value stream. These circumstances lead manufacturing enterprises to transfer principles of Lean Production Systems to other business units such as development and service. Therefore, the goal is the development of a Lean Enterprise, which enables the overall consideration of all processes through the entire value stream. Through this comprehensive process orientation all actors can be linked together along the entire value chain. Therefore, internal and external stakeholders have to be considered. This can be seen as one basic factor for an overall coordination. Approaches that enable a dynamic coordination of all processes within a Lean Enterprise have not been derived yet. Considering this topic, this paper derives and describes an approach to determine objectives of the corporate enterprise strategy to the processes of all units through the entire value stream. In addition to this, processes can be quickly adapted to deal with dynamic and unpredictable markets. Thereby a dynamic coordination of all processes within a Lean Enterprise can be realized.
230. Development of Hybrid Quality Management System for Construction Equipment Part Industry
1IT Converged Process Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, 143, Hanggaul-ro, Sangnok-gu, Ansan-si, 15588, Republic of Korea; 2Dept. of Industrial Management Engineering, Hanyang UNIV., 55, Hanyangdaehak-ro, Sangnok-gu, Ansan-si, 15588, Republic of Korea
Construction machine consisting of about 30,000 components has a complicated value chain and small quantity production compared to a variety of its types. The quality and durability are especially considered importantly in construction machine due to its long-term operation in extreme environments such as construction, mining and plant industry. The quality of construction machine highly depends on the quality of its parts; therefore, the quality process in parts manufacturers should be systematically managed. By combining the advantages of a packaged system that increases the recyclability of a system while decreasing the time required for system building, with the advantages of a customized system that improves the suitability of enterprise’s work process, this study is to development the hybrid quality management system (HQMS) containing the advantages of the two systems. Thus, the leading manufacturers of key parts in construction machine were selected to draw their functional requirements of system through the 4 step development process of requirements. Especially, the key performance indicator (KPI) and management performance indicator that are being actually managed by parts manufacturers are used in specifying and validating the functional requirements, and improving the objectivity of development process for requirements. In system design, the common functional requirements that are used in all companies are platform in a package and combined with the optional functional requirements preferred by individual company to build the customized system. In addition, the HQMS is operated in-house or by cloud service based upon the security policy established in each individual company, as well as provides users with customizing its main screen. This study implements the prototype HQMS as proposed in study and applies it to two parts manufacturers to show the positive effects of system design.
194. Supporting maintenance scheduling: a case study
University of Minho, Portugal
The scheduling of activities aims to establish “when” and “who” each planned task will be processed. Maintenance scheduling is concerned with the allocation of (scarce) resources to maintenance activities with the objective to optimize one or more performance measures. Considering the preventive maintenance, each (preventive) maintenance activity (referred as a "task") to be scheduled usually involves technicians, equipment, and spare parts. As a result of scheduling the sequence over time of all preventive maintenance activities is obtained with the resources assignment, that are converted into a set of daily service orders for the maintenance technicians.
The work presented in this article is part of a project aimed at improving the computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) of an automotive company. In the company, the preventive maintenance scheduling is "manually performed" by the planner supported by the CMMS that roles only as an information system. Therefore, nowadays the maintenance scheduling is a time-consuming task due to the high number of planned activities to be considered and all the constraints related with: the technicians' availability and their skills; the spare parts stock; and, mainly, the downtime of production lines that defines the equipment availability. And, as a consequence, the scheduling currently method evidences lack of effectiveness. This article outlines the development of an automatic and intelligent scheduling support tool. With this new tool, the scheduler can get a quick scheduling solution based on a proper objective function, through a methodology adequately studied and specified for this case study.
This paper considers a scheduling problem where each of n tasks has to be processed by m technicians, that is modeled as a scheduling parallel machines problem. For each maintenance activity there are a set of inputs, such as: deadlines, due dates, processing times, required competence level, technicians’ availability and equipment availability (task availability). In this initial approach, the objective function defined is the minimization of maximum weighted lateness (wLmax) to accomplish the maintenance activities. Different heuristics algorithms that can be applied will be also discussed, aiming the development of an adequate heuristic able to find good scheduling solutions, taking into account all the constraints and the objective function. The use of proper algorithms makes scheduling faster to deal with contingencies, reducing maintenance costs in a manufacturing process, enabling the company to increase its productivity. Computational experiments with several instances considering different objective functions are presented and the results are discussed.
The future works will focus on the development on a methodology considering specified additional constraints and enhanced objective functions and more suitable to this large real-world problem.
99. Modeling and Simulation of the Motorcycle’s Lowside Fall
Università Politecnica delle Marche, Italy
The deployment of active safety systems enhancing the motorcycle stability and supporting riders in defusing critical and dangerous driving situations is a topic of major concern in the two-wheel research community. In the design and development of safety control systems, setting up an adequate model of the controlled system is a key issue since it should be able to describe adequately the motion of the vehicle in critical situations such as precarious adherence, cornering brake and acceleration, or dangerous falls. In literature, these situations are typically investigated by means of black box approaches, namely by using multibody numerical simulators in which the equations governing the vehicle dynamics are unknown. In this paper, instead, the authors propose an analytical model as alternative to black box approach for the simulation of critical and complex motorcycle’s dynamics leading to falls. The model has been presented in author’s earlier works, it has a minimum degree of complexity, considers the rear wheel traction/braking and takes into account the interactions of longitudinal and lateral friction forces acting on the tyres. This analytical model has allowed to investigate the lowside phenomenon and the simulation results has been presented.
104. The Product Design Information Imaging at the Construction Stage in 3D-model Creation Tree
1Ulyanovsk Mechanical Plant, 94 Moscow highway, Ulyanovsk 432022, Russian Federation; 2Ulyanovsk State Technical University, 32 North Venets st., 432027 Ulyanovsk, Russian Federation
This article is devoted to the designed product 3D-model information content imaging. As a rule, it based on the used CAD-systems abstract basic operations, not maintaining the mortgaged constructive meaning. Authors propose an approach for 3D-models information content presentation within the designed product subject area. This approach consists in basic operations generalization to the level of semantic macro functions. Such macrofunction different by fixed physical meaning, a specific set of design parameters and strict conduct. Such an approach will not only unequivocally correct to image information about the product design, but also facilitate the reuse of design decisions and their fragments.
125. Improving Supply Chain visibility with artificial neural networks
University of Coimbra, Portugal
The vulnerability of supply chains has been increasing in the last years. To increase competitiveness, many companies are more and more focused on lessening the impact of disruptions. The capacity to anticipate disruptions will allow companies to reduce risks, which increases higher levels of competitiveness.
To properly respond to disruptions, visibility across the supply chain (SC) is required. Supply chain visibility is the capability of sharing on-time and accurate data on customer demand, amount and location of inventory, cost of transportation, and other logistics dimensions throughout the SC. Therefore, SC visibility should include the capability for forward-looking, predictive views of the supply. By enabling visibility, many situations that could lead to disruptions in the SC can be identified and defused long before they reach a critical state. However, most authors either focus on simplified SCs (i.e. dyad, two-level supply chain, linear supply chain), which are far from the complexity of real environments.
This paper addresses these challenges by relying on an intelligent system (IS) to predict future status from historical data. A multi-echelon SC was developed in a simulator to generate data that could feed the IS. That data was used to teach the IS and give it the ability to recognize and extrapolate to future events based on new and untrained data.
In this paper, by applying artificial neural networks (ANNs), we intend to predict (1) the capacity to fulfil upcoming orders and their time in system and (2) which SC nodes will reach the re-order point and thus, require new orders upstream. That information will give the managers time to act, anticipate and cope with disruptions. Predictions were performed for different time horizons.
The proposed ANN approach allows to predict the capacity of the simulated SC to fulfil incoming orders for the next upcoming period with a recognition rate larger than 99%. This prediction for 10 upcoming periods presents a recognition rate of approximately 90%. Furthermore, the proposed approach allows, with a recognition rate of 97%, to anticipate which SC nodes will receive an order for the next upcoming period. These results are the base for a discussion on the use of ANN’s to increase SC visibility, thus allowing the planner to anticipate actions to avoid SC disruptions.
202. Investigation of the effect of grinding parameters on surface quality in grinding of TC4 titanium alloy
1Aalto University, Sweden; 2Northwestern Polytechnical University, 127 West Youyi Road, Xi’an 710072, China
TC4 titanium alloy is widely used in the components of aero-engines, for example blisks and blades. As the key components of aero-engine, the surface integrity has significant influence on aerodynamics performance and service life. In order to improve the surface quality of TC4 titanium alloy parts, the effect of grinding parameters on surface integrity must be known. In this research, an experimental analysis has been conducted to understand the effect of main grinding parameters, including wheel rotational speed, feed rate, grinding depth and abrasive size, on surface integrity in terms of surface roughness and residual stress, and removal rate. In order to investigate the cross influence from different process parameters, a large number of workpieces and experiments are often required. Therefore, the workpiece used in this study are used instead of actual blade. Before conducting the experiment, test samples were pre-cut using same cutting parameters as processing blade. Three level single parameter experiments were design for each grinding parameter and the material removal rate and surface integrity regarding surface roughness and residual stress were measured after each experiment. The results of this study reveal that the surface parameters are affected significantly by the grinding parameters. While each grinding parameter has different level influence on surface parameters. Additionally, the results provide a reliable and useful data for improving the surface quality and processing efficiency of grinding the components of aero-engine.
293. Reliability assessment of a packaging automatic machine by accelerated life testing approach
1University of Padova, Italy; 2Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Bologna, v.le Risorgimento 2, Bologna, 40136, Italy
Industrial competitiveness in the innovation, the time of the market introduction of new machine and the level of reliability requested implies that the strategies for the development of products must be more and more efficient. In particular, researchers and practitioners are looking for methods to evaluate the reliability, as cheaper as possible, knowing that systems are more and more reliable.
This paper presents a reliability assessment procedure applied to a mechanical component of an automatic machine for packaging using the accelerated test approach. The general log-linear (GLL) model is combined based on a relationship between several stresses, in particular mechanical and time based. The complete Accelerated Life Testing – ALT approach is presented by using Weibull distribution and Maximum Likelihood verifying method. A test plan is proposed to estimate the unknown parameters of accelerated life models.
Using the proposed ALT model the reliability function of the component is evaluated and then compared with data from field provided by customers regarding 10 years of real work on a fleet of automatic packaging machines.
The results confirm that the assessment method through ALT is effective for lifetime prediction with shorter test times.
305. Requirements for Education and Qualification of People in Industry 4.0
Faculty of Electrical Engineering at the University of West Bohemia in Pilsen, Czech Republic
Industry 4.0 is a new industrial revolution that was caused by the rapid development of new technologies such as automation, robotics and digitization. Development of new technologies not only fundamentally affect the industry and economy, but also has an impact on society-wide change. This change has an impact on security, labour market, social system and education. New technological changes will lead to the extinction of certain professions or industries and in turn contribute to the emergence of new professions. 4.0 The introduction of industry into enterprises leading to new principles of organization of labour organisation. Using these new technologies should be removed physically demanding work and improving the working environment, but will also increase the demands for flexibility and qualification of employees. The structure and workload majority of jobs in the companies will change and for this reason will be required from employee’s entirely new skills. The aim of this paper is to present an impact of Industry 4.0 concept into the organizational structures of industry companies. The paper tries to present changes in the organizational structure, thus new position, roles and results of analysis focused on definition requirement skills and qualifications for particular jobs.
324. The level of innovation in SMEs, the determinants of innovation and their contribution to development of value chains
1Poznań University of Technology, Poland; 2Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus- Seftenberg, Universitätsplatz 1, 01968 Senftenberg, Germany
The article describes is a synthetic presentation of the innovativeness idea. It includes analysis of innovativeness level represented by companies of various sizes and industries from all over the world. The analysis leads to the conclusion, that innovativeness of Polish companies is at low to moderate level, hence it needs some support. This is rationale for formulating a proposal on enhancing innovativeness by cooperation, skills and competences flow between companies. The paper present both the rationale and the framework of the research project, striving for development of an IT tool/platform supporting innovative knowledge and skill transfer and absorption.
331. Skeleton-based Generative Modelling method in the context of increasing functionality of virtual product assembly
1Silesian University of Technology, Poland; 2Key-Solutions, Ligocka Street 103, Katowice 40-568, Poland
Generative Modelling methods are becoming more popular. Despite the fast and dynamic development of CAx systems, well- described procedures of Generative Model creation do not exist. The lack of the described systems and their methodologies means that only a small group of engineers have knowledge and experience to create and use such type of models. In this paper, the authors try to highlight two methods of Generative Model preparation. These methods are the results of the authors’ experiences in working with such types of models. The first method is based on cooperation with external models which are input elements into a Generative Model. Input elements (geometrical or parametrical) are one of the most important things in the process of automatic model generation. The second described method is based on an input element in a wireframe form. The paper highlights areas of application and some advantages and disadvantages for each of the presented methods.
© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the 27th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing.
Keywords: Generative Modelling, Knowledge-Based Engineering, Skeleton-Based Design, CATIA V5
332. The methods of knowledge acquisition in the Product Lifecycle for a Generative Model’s creation process
1Silesian University of Technology, Poland; 2Key Solutions, Ligocka Street 103, Katowice 40-568, Poland
The process of automation becomes popular at different stages of the Product Lifecycle. By applying advanced CAx systems and advanced modelling techniques such as a Generative Modelling, it is possible to design, manufacture and release products onto the market in an easy and fast way. During the Product Lifecycle, a lot of knowledge about the product is generated, however, in the standard process, this knowledge is lost. By using the Knowledge-Based Engineering technique, it is possible to capture, formalise and reuse the knowledge about projects in the future. This approach has a lot of advantages, which are described in this paper.
339. Managing collaboration of specialists in various areas – a multidisciplinary approach to human centered design
Silesian University of Technology, Poland
Problems we face nowadays often concern complex objects and systems. In order to acquire a full spectrum of their complexity and design possibilities, it is required to adopt a multidisciplinary approach at the very first stages of the design process, namely research and ideation. This will enable to use knowledge from different, seemingly not related, domains. That is a big challenge though, as it requires gathering and integration of information, requirements and constraints from many scientific fields, which sometimes happen to be ruled by conflicting priorities. In this article we make an attempt to analyze the influence of way of managing specialistic knowledge on the quality and diversity of ideas generated during ideation. We present a study of a role of multiple specialists participation in ideation process and the influence of design priorities they adopted on various ideation stages on the final outcome. For this purpose a method was elaborated, that allowed to examine these issues. It is based on performance comparison of four groups of students. Members of the first two groups were managed to focus on using specialistic knowledge (each member on different domain) at the very first stages of the design process. Members of the other two groups, on the other hand, were not assigned to any specific scientific area and explore the problem freely. Both groups were lead to use various tools and methods in order to gain a wide understanding of a problem faced. Next, they went through ideation process, based od C-Sketch method. Finally, they evaluated ideas generated in the process.
The paper compares two approaches to managing specialistic knowledge in the ideation process in relation to the multidisciplinary problems. It presents the analysis of advantages, disadvantages and threats resulting from the adoption of a specific approach. It may be a useful basis while making a decision to choose a method and a way of realization of the ideation process.
55. Location Independent Manufacturing – Case-based Blue Ocean Strategy.
Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland
Environmental impact, saving natural resources and ecological behaviour are important factors for European manufacturing industry. Industry must concentrate to manufacture sustainable and recyclable products, but also the whole production processes have to be environment-friendly. Other important factors from a management point of view are ecological raw materials sourcing, ethical decision making and low emission delivery. Therefore, manufacturing companies are trying to arrange their manufacturing processes and facilities to correspond these demands. Other well-known current and future challenges are ageing, individualism, globalisation, urbanisation, and sustainability offer new finance possibilities but also a potential crisis. These global market’s megatrends have impacted to all manufacturing sectors and have caused a structural change in the manufacturing industry. Today’s industries are mostly pursuing towards knowledge in the global ICT globalisation and sustainability paradigms which are key factors in the competition for success between companies in the global economic. Globalisation, which is a key enabler of economic growth, is the most important benefit factor in the competition.
The LIM (Location Independent Manufacturing) concept has a partial answer for the challenges and needs presented by globalisation, sustainability, individualism and urbanisation megatrends. The LIM concept is a novel manufacturing and managing concept. It has been getting considerable attention lately in the Finnish manufacturing industry, especially among small and medium-sized enterprises. Besides its sustainability and environmental aspects, the LIM is an interesting concept since it contributes to the servitization paradigm and transformation towards industrial services.
The aim of this study is to build further understanding of the LIM by analysing an actual LIM-concept utilisation case with a company. The company that is the objective of this study supplies a wide range of wood processing production lines, machines and equipment tailored to customers’ needs. The company also provides solutions and cooperation via maintenance and life-cycle services. The operations use a project-based organisation close to the customers. The aim of the company is to improve the cost-effectiveness of their operations as well as increase their agility and strategic adaptability to respond to changing needs through new modifications of their machinery and products.
This study builds up how the Blue Ocean Strategy could help create new business opportunities to SMEs. Based on the case study, it has been analysed how to create uncontested market leadership by reconstructing market boundaries, how to focus on the big picture, how to go beyond existing demands, and finally how to get the correct strategic sequence. The study shows that many substructures of the LIM concept exist in the everyday business environment, but new understanding is needed to get the total benefit from the changing world.