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380. Influence of manufacturing constraints on the topology optimization of a high performance automotive dashboard.
Sara Mantovani1, Ignazio Lo Presti1, Luca Cavazzoni1, Andrea Baldini2
1University of Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy; 2Ferrari S.p.A, Via Abetone Inferiore 4, 41053 Modena, Italy
Topology Optimization (TO) methods optimize material layout to design light-weight and high-performance products. However, TO methods, applied for components or assembly with high complexity shape or for structures with copious number of parts respectively, do not usually take into account the manufacturability of the optimized geometries, then a heavy further work is required to engineer the product, risking to compromise the mass reduction achieved. Within an Industry 4.0 approach, we propose to evaluate manufacturing constraints since early stages of the conceptual design to perform a TO coherent with the manufacturing technology chosen. Several approaches of TO with different manufacturing constraints are proposed and each solution is compared. The optimum conceptual design is determined in order to minimize the component weight while satisfying both the structural targets and the manufacturing constraints; a case study on a high-performance sport car dashboard is finally presented.
381. A Practical Method for Determining the Pseudo-Rigid-Body Parameters of Spatial Compliant Mechanisms via CAE Tools
Pietro Bilancia, Giovanni Berselli, Luca Bruzzone, Pietro Fanghella
Univeristy of Genoa, Italy
Compliant Mechanisms (CMs) are currently employed in several engineering applications requiring high precision and reduced number of parts. For a given mechanism topology, CM analysis and synthesis may be developed resorting to the well-known Pseudo-Rigid Body (PRB) approximation, where flexible members undergoing large deformations are modelled via a series of spring-loaded revolute joints. The PRB approach is not only intended as a design tool for the first attempt sizing of the mechanism, but it is also useful for reducing computational costs during simulation and control of engineering systems containing compliant members. Owing to these considerations, this paper reports about a practical method to determine accurate PRB model of CM comprising out-of-plane displacements and distributed compliance. The method leverages on the optimization capabilities of modern CAE tools (i.e. Recurdyn Software), which provides built-in functions for modelling flexible members during their motions. Simulations are initially performed on an elementary case study, concerning a fixed-guided beam-like flexure, whose aim is to validate the method by comparing analytical and numerical results. Then, an industrial case study, which consists of a crank mechanism connected to a fully-compliant four bar linkage is discussed. The resulting PRB, which comprises four spherical joints with generalized springs mounted in parallel, shows performance comparable with the deformable system.
93. Self-aware Smart Products: Systematic Literature Review, Conceptual Design and Prototype Implementation
Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná - PUCPR, Brazil
Nowadays, during the manufacturing processes, lots of data are generated by various information systems along production lines. However, most of them are mainly used as a statistic for supporting the manual, semi-automatic or automatic decision makings. The fourth industrial revolution is the key to make more effective use of those data and to create a more interconnected smart manufacturing industries all around world. In which, machines can communicate not only with one other (Machine to Machine), but also, more directly, with products themselves, through the application of IoT (Internet of Things). This trend demands a product to know itself, namely self-awareness smart product. The data that stored inside a product throughout its life cycle is created, updated and protected in real time. It is currently becoming a reality to speed up the transformation from the traditional mass-production to the modern mass-customization. Producers and customers of a smart product can both benefit from what this new industrial revolution wave provides. The main objective of this paper is firstly to scientifically explore the state of art about the smart product in Industry 4.0 through a Systematic Literature Review (SLR). Second, to design a smart factory production environment based on the SLR findings (e.g. the most recognized software, hardware, and standards). Finally, to implement a self-awareness smart product prototype in this scenario by integrating the Near Field Communication technologies (such as RFID), internet accessible equipment (such as industrial robotic arm, programmable logic controller, Raspberry Pi, and Lego™ Mindstorm), and Cloud services (such as IBM Bluemix).
176. Designing for Metal Additive Manufacturing: a case study in the professional sports equipment field
Serena Graziosi1, Francesco Rosa1, Riccardo Casati1, Pietro Solarino2, Maurizio Vedani1, Monica Bordegoni1
1Politecnico di Milano, Italy; 2Fonderia Maspero s.r.l., Via Ercolano 2, Monza, 20900, Italy
In this paper, we discuss the possibilities available as well as the challenge to be faced when designing for metal additive manufacturing through the description of an application of the Selective Laser Melting technology within the professional sports equipment field. We describe the redesign activity performed on the cam system of a compound bow, starting from the analysis of the functional, manufacturing and assembly constraints till the strategies applied to guarantee the printability of the object. This activity has thus provided the opportunity to analyse the difficulties currently encountered by practitioners when designing for additive manufacturing due to the lack of integrated design approaches and the high number of aspects that need to be simultaneously taken into account when performing design choices.