250. Purchasing Management: The Optimisation of Product Variance
1School of Science and Engineering, Teesside University, Middlesbrough, TS1 3BA, UK; 2School of Technology, Economy and Social Policy, Ravensburg-Weingarten University, GER; 3Department of Operations, Logistics and Supply Chain Managemen,t University of Northumberia, Newcastle, UK
The purpose of this paper is to present a new optimised approach for product and process variance from the purchasing perspective. The research is based on two case studies involving a global acting automotive Tier 1 supplier who produces steering systems for cars and commercial vehicles. The first case study analysis the product variance of three components. The data were gathered from 116 variants, 13 sub suppliers for three different types of steering system. The second case study presents the conflict between the digitalisation of the sourcing process and the creation of unnecessary variance through the number of suppliers. The sourcing processes of a total of 50 different single components from an automotive steering system were analysed and evaluated. Time, money, quality and technology can be saved through a greater understanding of such product and process variances. The results of the case studies lead to a generalised method to optimise the existing variance, present cost improvements as well as optimising new key performance indicators to manage product and process variance out of the purchasing department.
143. Advances in 3D Measurement Data Management for Industry 4.0
1PROSTEP AG, Germany; 2Daimler AG, Stuttgart, Germany
This paper provides a novel approach for comprehensive 3D measurement data management in complex process chains in the automotive industry to fulfill technological requirements of Industry 4.0.
A variety of measurement methods and equipment are used in the automotive industry today to ensure the specified level of product quality. The multitude of devices and processes found in the automotive industry has always provided fertile ground for the harmonization of processes and methods. The desire for a standardized interface for the flexible design of the measurement process, is therefore a logical consequence. It requires a complex object model that not only includes the product model but also the equipment and tools, as well as the relevant test and tolerance data (product and manufacturing information and its relation to the 3D geometry).
Cross-domain data management also gives rise to the need for powerful measurement data management. Here, factors such as data-related recording, digital master, and control of the measurement process, as well as IT systems and interfaces play a role. Companies are hoping that this will bring about an increase in the level of process automation, improvements to the change process, further stabilization in the process, consistent quality statements, enhanced performance in individual process steps, as well as the early identification of risks. This challenge was recognized a number of years ago and was taken up by the Inspection PlusPlus Data Management Services (I++ DMS) initiative, a consortium of European automobile manufacturers.
Initial implementations of I++ DMS are being used in the quality management systems operated by German automotive OEMs. The data is not typically exchanged directly between the data-producing and the data-consuming systems but rather via an intermediate layer for persistent data storage. I++ DMS has not yet been able to sufficiently establish itself as a standard in the extremely complex measurement process. Implementation of the measurement process involving many different manufacturers and components is therefore still being stretched to the limit – a limit that would vanish with the definition of a uniform interface.
A project group entitled “3D Measurement Data Management“ was set up under the joint auspices of the VDA (German Association of the Automotive Industry) and the ProSTEP iViP Association in order to address this issue. It is evaluating the current status of I++ DMS with regard to its suitability as the standard format.
The reference process created within the framework of the working group comprises not only inspection planning but the entire process chain: quality assurance, inspection plan, inspection task, and measurements. The group is focusing on two use cases: the process chain involved in exchanging quality data within a company and the exchange of quality data between an OEM and a supplier.
The findings and results of this working group have a tremendous relevance to introduction of Industry 4.0 in complex manufacturing processes. It is contribution to optimization of existing equipment as well as development of new equipment in the areas measurement strategies, measurement principles and evaluation rules.
144. Agile Digitale Transformation of Enterprise Architecture Models in Engineering Collaboration
1PROSTEP AG, Germany; 2California State University Long Beach, USA
Emergent behavior is behavior of a system that does not depend on its individual parts, but on their relationships to one another. Such behavior exists in biological systems, physical systems as well as in the human performance. It is an inherited nature of a System-of-Systems (SoS). A suitable framework is needed to guide the development of SoS architecture, which includes emergent behavior. Enterprise architecture (EA) is a discipline driving change within organizations. Aligning and integrating business and IT thereby belongs to strategic management. The management of EA change is a challenging task for enterprise architects, due to complex dependencies amongst EA models, when evolving towards different alternatives. In this paper, various architecture frameworks are explored for an application on SoS architecture: the Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DoDAF) and Ministry of Defense Architecture Framework (MODAF) are declared inappropriate. The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF), the Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework (FEAF) and the Zachman Framework on the other hand are suitable. The use of Zachman Framework to guide the architecture development is described in step-by-step details in this paper. The agent-based simulation is recommended to develop the SoS architectural models following the Zachman Framework guidance.
Zachman framework has gained a high importance in large companies. Question arises how it can be applied to SME, in particular with the collaborative engineering. As two concurrently emerging topics, the enterprise architecture (EA) and the digital transformation (DT) affect each other. Within SME, the adoption of enterprise architecture heavily depends on the position of the business owners and business leaders respectively. In the most cases, they are satisfied with an optimized workflow management. Process definitions according to TOGAF are on a very abstract level and provide solely an informal guidance that can be used as a starting point for further refinement in organizations. As a matter of fact, a SME is acting agile and flexible, and don’t accept formalism easily.
OpenDESC.com is an industry-focused portal for engineering collaboration with features serving especially automotive throughout an extended enterprise. It is a holistic service, which includes both translation of engineering data into a custom environment and secured provision of engineering data to partners in an automotive SoS. The conception consists of a high-level architecture of the platform on the perspective of 6 selected layers of the Zachman Framework. We have investigated the emergent behavior of this architecture which is expected to be easy to adapt and transform for development of new services.
The findings and results of this research have a significant relevance to implementation of Digital Transformation in the complex global operations. It is contribution to coherence of Enterprise Architecture and agile Digital Transformation in development of new solutions and services.
216. The role of business relationships in new product development. The case of Antrox-Nel Design
1Università Politecnica delle Marche, Italy; 2Department of Engineering Sciences, Division of Industrial Engineering & Management, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
This paper focuses on the study of a new product development process in business-to-business setting. By adopting a case study research strategy, the main findings show how the evolution of a business relationship influences the whole product development process. The research also clearly shows how business relationships initiated from pre-existing social relationships tend evolve continuously, better adapting to the external environment and regenerating more easily compared to relationships established just for economic exchange. In addition, a novel product has been conceived that integrates lighting and architectural elements and exploiting a shared model of production. The result is an enrichment of design values and an increase of both turnovers.
217. Opportunities Assessment of Product Development Process in Industry 4.0
Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná - PUCPR, Brazil
The current globalization is causing to the world economy a profound process of change. Companies have sought to apply strategies to minimize the negative environmental impacts of their products and processes, at the same time intensify their competitiveness. One of the differentials of the companies are the early launch of the products and the ability to the develop them, with the objectives to meet the growing needs and expectations of the customers. The product lifecycle is getting shorter, which encourages the continued flow of new product development projects in the industry. With intelligent factories and products, changes will happen in the way the products will be manufactured, impacting on various market sectors. Products customization by consumers, tends to be one more variable in the manufacturing process, and smart factories will have to be able to customize what each customer have into consideration, adapting to their preferences. Currently, the industrial value creation in the industrialized countries is shaped by the development towards the fourth stage of industrialization. The so-called Industry 4.0 is based on the establishment of smart factories, smart products and smart services embedded in an internet of things and of services also called industrial internet. The use of Artificial Intelligence tools for product and process development and the growing analysis of opportunity provoked by Industry 4.0 are increasingly presents. A research question then arises: How is the relationship between the Product Lifecycle Management and the fourth industrial revolution area? With this regard, this paper will present a state of the art review of Industry 4.0 based on recent developments in research and practice within PLM domain. Subsequently, an overview of different opportunities for product lifecycle management in Industry 4.0 will be presented. A multi-criteria decision making approach using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is proposed in order to organize the knowledge and evaluate the relations between the concepts from the domains. As outcome, an overview of different opportunities for product lifecycle management in Industry 4.0 will be presented and a model will be proposed in order to relate the concepts.