Conference Agenda

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Session Overview
SES 3.6: Quality engineering and management
Tuesday, 27/Jun/2017:
4:30pm - 5:30pm

Session Chair: Paul-Eric Dossou
Location: Aula R (first floor)

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204. Cost effective quality assessment in industrial parts manufacturing via optical acquisition

Francesco Malapelle1, Diego Dall'Alba1, Denis Dalla Fontana2, Ivano Dall’alba2, Paolo Fiorini1, Riccardo Muradore1

1University of Verona, Italy; 2Modelleria Pozzan - Via del Progresso 1/20, 36015 Schio VI, Italy

Dimensional control is a key component in today’s Industry 4.0.The capability to verify that the designed geometry meets the project requirements in terms of expected dimensional constraints imposed by the specific part functional role is an ongoing challenge during the manufacturing process.

In an effort to verify product form, fit and function, the majority of companies are adopting traditional measurement techniques, e.g. using coordinate-measuring machines (CMM). These techniques have proven to be highly accurate on parts that feature simplistic shapes with easy to measure spots (e.g. circular holes, edges with regular thickness and, in general, regular geometries). Unfortunately product verification becomes a very costly and time consuming process when the parts present complicated characteristics, such as contoured surfaces, heavily featured geometry and product assemblies.

Optical 3D scanning techniques are less accurate than traditional methods but they have proven to be both an accurate and a cost-effective alternative solution to the problem of dimensional information estimation, allowing to create measuring reports that are more meaningful, complete and informative and that can be delivered in a visual fashion (e.g. full color rainbow plots, sectional comparisons), or as traditional CMM-style reports.

Today, many of the industrial sectors have implemented 3D scanning technologies to address their inspection and quality assurance requirements, but in many cases highly accurate systems are not affordable for small or medium enterprises (SME). This makes them less competitive in the upcoming Industry 4.0 revolution. There is a wide gap, in both cost and measuring performance, between high-end systems and affordable solutions available for SME.

Therefore, the design and development of a cost-effective and reliable 3D scanning and measurement system suitable for SME is a priority for allowing them to tackle the problem of quality control as bigger stakeholders.

The part of the system that most influences the accuracy is the available 3D scanning system. In this work we adopt a low-cost optical acquisition system based on two cameras and a projector mounted on a tripod; the same setup is used in several high-end measuring systems. We compare the proposed system with other optical 3D scanning systems in terms of cost and accuracy: a RGB-D time of flight sensor, a state-of-the-art photogrammetry reconstruction software, and a professional 3D scanner.

We provide quantitative results obtained on a synthetic mechanical component manufactured by our industrial partner having challenging characteristics, such as holes, protuberances, indentations, curved surfaces and low-visible areas. The original CAD model is used as ground truth for a fair comparison in terms of standard point cloud and mesh distances. Moreover we provide qualitative results on a real mechanical part, using the same systems. The results indicate that our system is a reliable source of dimensional information that will be affordable to all those industries that cannot buy expensive high-end systems.

309. Solving quality problems in tire production preparation process: a practical approach

Bruno Miguel Amorim Barbosa1, Maria Teresa Pereira1,2, Francisco G. Silva1, Raul Campilho1

1Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Portugal; 2CIDEM – Centro de Investigação e Desenvolvimento em Engenharia Mecânica, Porto 4200-072, Portuga

This work was carried out in Continental tire factory in the APEX machines production process, with the propose of improving APEX performance and the produced product quality rate. Main possible causes of defects generation was identified and proposals for improvement to enhance the proper functioning of the APEX production process was also developed. Applying Six Sigma, the identification of the variables that influence the quality of the production was obtained. DMAIC cycle (Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve, Control) was applied in the process analyse. This enabled a structured analysis and the identification of different causes that negatively affect the process in study and consequently the identification of opportunities for improvement.

With the help of the DMAIC method a series of experiments was developed in order to achieve improvements in product quality rate and process control and stabilization.

149. Reliable and flexible Quality Management Systems in the automotive industry: monitor the context and change effectively

Luis Miguel Fonseca, Jose Pedro Domingues

Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Portugal

The automotive industry is facing considerable challenges with increased competition and more brands, models and complex vehicles, tighter regulatory requirements (e.g., emissions), and the need to manage global supplier networks with shorter development cycles.

To respond to customer demands and to improve business performance, more than 1 million organizations, of all activity sectors worldwide, have implemented ISO 9001 International Standard Quality Management Systems (QMS).

With the purpose of ensuring that ISO 9001 remains actual in a world of increasingly complexity and interconnection, ISO issued the revised ISO 9001:2015, with novel and reinforced approaches. This lead to the new IATF 16949 standard for the automotive industry, that should be comprehended as a supplement to and used in conjunction with ISO 9001:2015. While ISO 9001:2015 is more focused on the organization and its customers (and relevant interested parties that influence the quality of the organization products), IATF 16949 greater emphasizes the OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) and statutory and regulatory requirements, emphasizing defect prevention and the reduction of variation and waste in the supply chain.

The ratio of supplier added value in the automotive industry shows a consistent growth from 56% in 1985 to 82% in 2015 (Statista, 2016). QMS are a key requirement to ensure a competent supplier network, with properly selected and qualified suppliers.

This research goal is to identify relevant dimensions for organizations to effectively improve (either by continuous incremental improvement or by disruptive breakthrough), a study of the organizations that have already implemented and be independently audited against ISO 9001:2015, was carried out with IRCA ISO 9001:2015 Registered Auditors, all over the world.

Although the auditee organizations were not restricted to the automotive sector, due to the horizontal characteristics of the automotive industry supply chain, this could be a preliminary input for the industry. The online survey yielded 393 valid replies, from auditors from 71 countries, and three variables were evaluated with a Likert scale:

- “Change management” has been successfully implemented by the auditee organizations?

- “Understanding the organization and its context” has been successfully implemented by the auditee organizations?

- “Improvement” has been successfully implemented by the auditee organizations?

Sample normality was confirmed trough Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test and the hypotheses were tested by using Pearson Correlation coefficient. The findings show the existence of a strong positive correlation between:

- The capability to understanding the context and both the ability to change and the achievement of improved performance and results;

- The ability to change (plan, design, implement and control change) and the achievement of improved performance and results.

These conclusions highlight the need for the automotive industry OEM and Suppliers to properly monitor the organizational (internal and external) context and identify the key issues that affect the ability of their QMS to deliver quality products, and to plan, design, implement and control change in an effective and timely manner, within the whole supply chain. These can be major contributors for the industry ecosystem improved performance and results.

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