177. From paper manual to AR manual: do we still need text?
1Politecnico di Bari, Italy; 2Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 1, 20156 Milano, Italy; 3Department of Mechanics, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 1, 20156 Milano, Italy
In this work, we studied the issue of the conversion of a traditional maintenance manual into an Augmented Reality manual. One of the advantages of the use of Augmented Reality to display technical instructions, respect to paper or computer assisted manual, is the reduction of text needed. In fact, most of technical information can be conveyed through other means such as CAD models, graphic signs, images, etc.. However, two questions remain open: 1) how to determine which instructions, or portion of them, can be converted into AR without using text; 2) how to reformulate the remaining instructions. In this work, we answered to these questions. As to the first one, we described an approach that allows to classify technical instructions into three categories. It is based on the analysis of the main verbs used in the instruction. This classification would help to reduce the effort in the authoring phase of an AR manual. As to the second question, we explored the possibility to use a Controlled Natural Language (CNL) to simplify the definition of new instructions and let them easier to translate into other languages.
147. Human-machine collaboration in virtual reality for adaptive production engineering
KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden
This paper outlines the main steps towards an open and adaptive simulation method for human-robot collaboration (HRC) in production engineering supported by virtual reality (VR). The work is based on the latest software developments in the gaming industry, in addition to the already commercially available hardware that is robust and reliable. This allows to overcome VR limitations of the industrial software provided by manufacturing machine producers and it is based on an open-source community programming approach, and also leads to significant advantages such as interfacing with the latest developed hardware for realistic user experience in immersive VR, as well as the possibility to share adaptive algorithms. A practical implementation in Unity is provided as a functional prototype for feasibility tests. However, at the time of this paper, no controlled human-subject studies on the implementation have been noted, in fact, this is solely provided to show preliminary proof of concept. Future work will formally address the questions that are raised in this first run.
165. Review of socio-technical considerations to ensure successful implementation of Industry 4.0
1AECOM Ltd, United Kingdom; 2Buckinghamshire New University, High Wycombe, HP11 2JZ, UK; 3Process and Automation Division, AECOM, Manchester, M1 6LT, UK
Industry 4.0 is promoted as the natural continuation of manufacturing evolution and is an amalgamation of technologies made available through the internet, real time communication, advanced analytical capabilities, digital modelling, additive manufacturing and computer integrated manufacturing. This paper proposes the argument that such an amalgamation of technologies will only contribute to the strategic fit for a manufacturing company if the amalgamation is defined within an ‘architecture’ that aligns the capabilities of the company to the needs of their current and potentially emerging customers.
Historically successful manufacturing has exhibited a connection to the customer base by efficiently and economically supplying both the necessary and desirable products that deliver consumer value. Such manufacturers have an infrastructure that matches their capabilities to the needs of their customer base. The success, for example, of manufactures adopting lean systems of production is due to the structural focus of lean to delivering customer value. The Toyota Production System (TPS) evolved through a process of trial and error. Once the ad-hoc progression of the TPS had been conceptualised into a delivery structure that enabled a manufacturer to focus their capabilities to delivering customer value was the TPS successfully adopted across the wider manufacturing landscape and later to both commercial and service sectors. A similar argument can be applied to the Six Sigma approach to continuous improvement. It is the structure and disciplined dissemination of the Six Sigma methodology that leads to successful improvement projects.
It is clear from consulting the general manufacturing and academic literature that the Industry 4.0 model has the potential to leverage manufacturing capability to deliver a more focussed, bespoke and customised delivery of value to an increasingly demanding (and potentially globally expanding) customer base. Currently, Industry 4.0 far many manufactures is shrouded in mystery and what can be confused as jargon (‘The Internet of Things’, ‘Big Data’, ‘Cyber-physical systems’ ….). Consequently, this paper advocates that the successful adoption of Industry 4.0 is best served if the model is framed within a delivery structure or architecture that aligns and promotes the manufacturers capabilities to the requirements of their customer base.
The contribution of this paper to the increasing Industry 4.0 body of knowledge is to propose an alignment architecture that enables manufacturers to leverage their capabilities to ensure a strategic fit to their customer base through the adoption of Industry 4.0 technologies. The paper introduces the Industry 4.0 model and provides definitions to the main 4.0 concepts. The historical evolution of manufacturing is reviewed from a perspective that Industry 4.0 adoption benefits from understanding both the successful and less successful implementations of previous advances in technology and operations management. Based on this approach, the Industry 4.0 architecture is presented followed by concluding remarks.
172. Supporting remote maintenance in industry 4.0 through augmented reality
1Politecnico di Milano, School of Industrial and Information Engineering, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci, 32, 20133, Milano, Italy; 2Politecnico di Milano, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Via La Masa 1, 20156, Milano, Italy; 3Politecnico di Bari, Department of Mechanics, Mathematics and Management, Viale Japigia 182, 70126, Bari, Italy; 4SITAEL S.p.A, Via San Sabino 21, 70042, Mola di Bari (BA), Italy; 5Amec Foster Wheeler, Via S. Caboto 15, 20094, Corsico (MI), Italy
Due to the Industry 4.0 initiative, AR has started to be considered one of the most interesting technologies companies should invest in, especially in order to improve their maintenance services. Several technological limitations have prevented augmented reality to become an effective industrial tool. In this paper, we critically analyzed the limitations of AR technologies and how they have been overcome in years. We present a novel solution for remote maintenance based on off-the-shelf mobile and AR technologies. The architecture of the application allows us to remotely connecting a skilled operator in a control room with an unskilled one located where the maintenance has to be performed. We describe the important features we have added to its previous version and the rationale behind them in order to make the technical communication more effective.
367. The Challenge of Introducing AR in Industry - Results of a Participative Process Involving Maintenance Engineers
1German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence, Trippstadter Str. 122, Kaiserslautern 67663, Germany; 2Technologie-Initiative SmartFactoryKL e.V., Germany
Augmented Reality-based applications are increasingly used for industrial scenarios. However, finding use cases that make good use of the characteristics of AR and are reasonable in terms of its creation effort is not straightforward. Only limited requirements and guidelines for identifying useful AR applications in industry can be found. In this paper findings of a user-centered process conducted within an engineering company as well as the resulting use case, its implementation and user feedback are presented.