302. Application of Lean Production Principles and Tools for Quality Improvement of Productive Processes in a Carton Company
1University of Minho, Portugal; 2ALGORITMI Research Center, University of Minho - DPS, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
In general, companies are under pressure to improve productivity and quality while reducing costs. This has led many of these companies to implement a Lean Production philosophy . Lean Production is a multidimensional approach that covers a variety of management practices that aim to reduce waste and improve operational effectiveness . However, the application of the practices alone does not ensure the implementation of the Lean philosophy. In addition to technical factors, non-tangible change factors, such as creating a supportive learning environment and developing leadership in the organization are required. Other companies follow a different strategy and use quality continuous improvement of products / services.
In this context, a management strategy that combines TQM principles with Lean Production principles has proved to be adequate for many companies .
This study was carried out in a company of the sector of the production of corrugated cardboard boxes and lithographic boxes, having as main objective quality and performance improvement of a production process applying TQM and Lean Production principles and tools.
The methodology used in this work can be structured in the following steps:
1: Analysis of the productive system and survey of potential problems that affect its performance; Identification of sub-process or critical operations for process performance;
2: For the sub-process or critical operations identified in step 1, conduct in-depth analysis and diagnosis to assess key issues and identify root causes of these problems. If necessary, establish performance indicators, create record sheets, collect data and evaluate performance indicators;
3: Presentation of proposals to solve the problems identified in step 2;
4: Analysis and selection of proposals to be implemented and implementation planning;
5: Implementation of proposals, evaluation of their effectiveness and planning and implementation of possible corrective measures.
3. Results and Discussion
The “crosslinking” section was identified as the section that most contributes to the production of nonconformities throughout the process. The analysis of the current situation of this section was carried out using the cause-effect diagram, Pareto’s analysis, study of setup times, and also the creation of some performance indicators such as Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) and waste quantification.
The proposed method identified the main operational problems, such as high setup times, low availability of machines, lack of organization in the working area, etc. To solve these problems, improvement proposals, based on Lean Production, were presented, like the implementation of the SMED (Single Minute Exchange of Die), 5S technique and visual management, having resulted in a reduction of 23% in the setup time and a reduction of 60% in the movements carried out by the operator.
 J. Liker, “The Toyota Way”, Madison, WI, McGraw-Hill, 2004.
 J Womack, and D Jones, “Lean Thinking”, New York, NY, Free Press, 2003.
 N. Salleh, K. Salmiah and H. Jaafar, Review study of developing an integrated TQM with LM framework model in Malaysian automotive industry, TQM Journal, Vol. 24, Issue 5, p399-417, 2012.
40. Lean manufacturing applied to metallic wire rope assembly lines for automotive industry
The automotive industry is one of the most demanding sectors in the global market, since it requires a systematic increase in productivity. In the current economic scenario, the challenges at hand are great: the reduction of costs and an increase in competitiveness, without investment. In order to address this situation, the only solution resides in the optimization of the product and/or processes.
This study was developed at the FICOCABLES company, where one sought to improve the assembly lines of the metallic wire ropes used to control some of the basic functions in cars, such as elevating car-door windows, opening car and fuel-tank doors, and so on. As in any other company dedicated to the production of automotive components, improvements aimed at increasing the competitiveness of this type of product are extremely welcome; any kind of disturbance in the production flow can cause serious problems in the supply chain, as well as in the final car assembly lines.
The work began with an extensive study of the shop-floor, so that one could map out the processes involved in the assembly line, the respective technologies involved, task registration and the collection of production times for each line. In order to identify both the problems and difficulties which cause waste of time and money in the value chain, corresponding Value Stream Mapping (VSM) was used to evaluate the current state. One resorted to Lean tools so as to eliminate waste and maximize earnings, and new solutions were studied for the identified problems. By applying the PDCA methodology based on an action plan, one was able to ensure the implementation of some solutions, as well as the subsequent processes and the registration of these for future memory.
The performance of efficiency was dramatically increased by this study. It allowed one to determine that the application of this methodology to other assembly lines is crucial, when attempting to improve overall efficiency. The result is the achievement of effective productivity earnings, making the assembly lines more profitable, or allowing for a drop in product cost. The overall quality was also greatly increased in this manner.
2. Lean Production Training for the Manufacturing Industry: Experiences from Karlstad Lean Factory
Karlstad university, Sweden
Simulation for training lean manufacturing ranges from simple paper-based or LEGO®-based games to larger scale simulation environments, for instance push car assembly. This may be suitable for educating students, but often less so for training industry workers. The latter group typically is more diverse and is more used to intuitive learning than to formal instruction. Thus, it is important that a training environment for this group more realistically represents the work environment. For this reason, a lean training environment “Karlstad Lean Factory” that includes materials processing stations as well as assembly areas was created.
Serious Gaming Theory
Serious gaming theory is not always very suitable to describe lean production training for factory workers. Serious gaming theory often focuses on computer-based games. Often, it focuses on university students and/or military personnel as participants. These groups are not representative for factory workers. For instance, they usually are more homogeneous groups and formal training/education is part of their daily routine.
In the paper two new models are presented that are more suitable to describe Lean Production training. One describes the relationships between the work environment and the training environment. It highlights the importance of the participant group when designing a training environment. The second model describes the lean training activity. This model highlights the importance of debriefing, peer discussion, and change decision.
Karlstad Lean Factory
The single unit and batch processing stations of Karlstad Lean Factory are all equipped with stack lights. Processing times, breakdown intervals, and repair times can be set by the instructor. Thus, a variety of production environments be emulated, and it also allows for adjusting the level of difficulty to the participants’ proficiency. The Instructors can define a number of different rules for batch processing stations so as to emulate different production scenarios. The stations are easy to transport which facilitates on-site training if requested by a company.
At the time of abstract submission, Karlstad Lean Factory is being tested with industrial participants after functional tests with university students had been completed successfully. The full paper will report on first findings from these training sessions.
An initial comparison between usually relatively homogeneous groups such as university students or military personnel and often more heterogeneous groups such as industrial employees has resulted in five hypotheses to be studied in future research:
1) For heterogeneous groups (which factory workers often are), training transfer may vary significantly, even within one group of participants.
2) In the low- to medium simulator fidelity range, factory workers need more similarity between the work environment and the training environment to get the same amount of training transfer.
3) Factory workers require a higher degree of similarity (fidelity) for training transfer to take place at all.
4) For high fidelity simulation environments, factory workers have concrete work experience that they can relate to, and training transfer surpasses that for university students.
5) For novices in manufacturing, high fidelity simulators are not very suitable. They are too complex for novices.
173. Interdependencies of Industrie 4.0 & Lean Production Systems – a use cases analysis
TU Braunschweig, Germany
Lean has become a widely spread approach to gain high efficient processes in enterprises. Nowadays, Industrie 4.0 is one of the most promising approach to cope future challenges in the production environment. It is shown, that a process orientated organization and thus, Lean Production Systems might be an enabler towards a successful and sustainable implementation of Industrie 4.0 in the production environment.  To enable a detailed analysis of interdependencies between Lean Production Systems (LPS) and Indstrie 4.0, several Industrie 4.0 elements have been structured into technologies, systems and process related characteristics, based on 260 use cases of applied Industrie 4.0 technologies in the German industry. Afterwards, the use cases have been analyzed regarding interdependencies between Industie 4.0 and principles of Lean Production Systems.
57. Lean information and communication tool to connect shop and top floor in small and medium-sized enterprises
ZeMA - Zentrum für Mechatronik und Automatisierungstechnik gGmbH, Germany
Small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) see themselves confronted with constant challenges. Globalization, volatile markets and international competition require a focus on key topics such as customer satisfaction and delivery reliability. Key requirements for achieving these aims are lean and reactive business processes, which are obtained through horizontal and vertical networking of shop floor and top floor.
The Industry 4.0 research project NeWiP deals with, amongst others, integrated information networking in small and medium-sized enterprises, in the sector of custom machine engineering. In these companies, information acquisition and transmission is carried out mainly in a paper-based way. An application scenario for example, is the modification process of technical drawings under consideration of business processes. Skilled workers and foremen are qualified to make necessary modifications during the manufacturing and assembly process on the shop floor. The modifications are outlined by hand in the technical drawing. At the end of the production process, all technical drawings are passed over to the construction/development department, in order to create an overall documentation. Due to the fact that all technical drawings are passed to the construction/development department simultaneously, and therefore have to be reworked successively, there is an extension of both the completion time and the project term. At the same time, handwritten modifications of technical drawings increase both the risk of media disruption between shop floor and the construction/development division on the top floor as well as the total costs.
This paper presents, by means of the above-mentioned scenario, a production application for gathering and needs-based communication of part modifications in technical drawings by smart devices. The application focus different organization units and business processes, with the aim to digitalize the previously described analog processes and avoid media disruption in the company. The paper deals with the following steps: analysis and development stages of the production app, smart devices and implementation of the system on the shop floor.