39. Redesigning barrier mechanism for railway applications
ISEP - Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Portugal
For a long time that barriers mechanisms applied in the railway environment are common, having always as main concern ensuring the functional safety of its use. To achieve this, techniques with great technology maturity have always been used in barriers systems. As a result, these devices have always presented a high cost and long life cycle, when compared with similar used in other types of applications. This life cycle lengthening is today reaching the end, presenting problems on its components due to equipment obsolescence.
This project was carried out in an industrial environment at EFACEC – Engenharia e Sistemas, Transports department, located in Maia – Portugal. In this project it was applied an innovative approach to this type of equipment and components. The work started by a full analysis of the actual mechanism components, corresponding manufacturing processes and usual problems. With Value Analysis methodology, it was possible to identify critical components, regarding both the value in the mechanism and their obsolescence. Based on this analysis, novel solutions were proposed aiming to change the state of the art solution for the Level Crossing barrier mechanism, always ensuring the safe fail mode.
The materials and components have been selected and designed in order to solve all the current problems, being functional and reducing the cost when compared to the current mechanism.
315. Comparison of commonly used sail cloths through photogrammetric acquisitions, experimental tests and numerical aerodynamic simulations
1University of Catania, Italy; 2Institute of Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials , National Research Council of Italy, V.le J.F. Kennedy 54 – Mostra d’Oltremare PAD.20, 80125 Naples – Italy.; 3Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Napoli Federico II, P.le Tecchio, 80 - 80125 Napoli – Italy; 4Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via G. Di Biasio, 43 - 03043 Cassino (Fr) - Italy
Sail manufacture has undergone significant development due to their implementation and increased application in such sailing races as America’s Cup and the Volvo Around-The-World Race. These competitions require advanced technologies to improve sail performance. Hull design is fundamentally important but sails, i.e. the only propulsion instrument, play the key role in boat dynamics. Under aerodynamic loads, sail cloth deforms, aerodynamic interaction is modified and the pressure on the sails is unevenly distributed resulting in performance inconsistencies.
Interaction between fluid and structure requires a solution which can combine both aerodynamic and structural numerical simulations. Furthermore, the aeroelastic sail characteristics must be applied accurately in numerical simulations as they have profound impact on the dynamic performance of the sail. Only precise knowledge of the constituent materials provides precise numerical simulations.
Elastic orthotropic characteristics must be obtained by experimental testing. They depend on the fibre orientation (weft and warp) of the sail components cut by the sail maker’s plotter and then sewn together to form the sail. Sail thickness varies where reinforcements are added to support areas subjected to greater strain, e.g. in the pockets of cloth sewn or glued onto the sail where the reinforcement spars are inserted.
In particular, the present paper evaluates the impact that the distribution of fibres and the geometric arrangement of sail cloth have on sail dynamic performance in terms of pressure, vibration and dissipated energy. Digital photogrammetry is used to acquire figures, undertake the 3D reconstruction of sails and validate the structural and CFD numerical model.
Photogrammetry markers positioned on the surface and on sail structures are acquired by means of drones, whereas the 3D reconstruction of the sails is undertaken both in static conditions and during navigation.
Conforming to UNI EN ISO 13934-1, 2000, experimental sail characterization was performed using an Zwick & Roell Z100 tensile testing machine. In particular, tensile tests in weft and warp directions were performed on eleven different types of sail cloth. Subsequently, the elastic modulus and stress-strain curve were evaluated. The sail was modelled with Detached Eddy Simulations (DES), providing drawings of the topology of turbulent structures in the sail wake and revealed new flow features. As expected also in industry 4.0 the method allows to control the production process and final product optimization.
48. Optimising a specific tool for electrical terminals crimping process
Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Portugal
The continuous need for increasing productivity leads to the use of increasingly sophisticated equipment, enabling new approach techniques of manufacturing processes, higher speeds and greater accuracy in the final product. However, almost all of the equipment require appropriate tools, which effectively take advantage of their available potential. Engineering has an extremely important role in this matter since it will have to develop the tools regarding the satisfaction of a large number of requirements. This work was developed around a real need, having been stipulated the requirements needed by the customer, being the tool design elaborated around these same requirements. A tool optimisation was undertaken still at the preliminary draft stage, the materials have been carefully selected and the budgeting was also presented, as well as a plan for the operation and maintenance of the tool.
65. Investigation on the industrial design approach for CNC machine tools and its implementation and application perspectives
1Brunel University London, United Kingdom; 2School of Mechano-Electronic Engineering, Xi’dian University, Xian, P.R. China
Industrial design for CNC machine tools is becoming increasingly important, although it has more technological and usage complexity compared with consumer electronic products and ICT devices. This paper presents the development of an industrial design approach for CNC machine tools and its implementation perspectives in the advanced mechatronic and CNC machine application contexts. Firstly, the investigation is focused on the industrial design ideas for CNC machine tools by formulating the advanced design concepts, ergonomics and human-machine interactions, and the importance of user experience of CNC machines. Then, the industrial design principles for CNC machine tools are discussed particularly concerned with the machine configuration, geometrical shape/form, colour, digital enhancement, human-machine interaction, and the machine design services. Furthermore, the industrial design approach is proposed with application case studies on design of specific CNC machines. Finally, the implementation of the approach is demonstrated through the development of virtual machine tools at Brunel University London. The paper is concluded with further discussion on the potential and application of the industrial design approach for CNC machines broadly.