Conference Agenda

Topical Meetings and Sessions:

TOM 1 - Silicon Photonics and Guided-Wave Optics
TOM 2 - Computational, Adaptive and Freeform Optics
TOM 3 - Optical System Design, Tolerancing and Manufacturing
TOM 4 - Bio-Medical Optics
TOM 5 - Resonant Nanophotonics
TOM 6 - Optical Materials: crystals, thin films, organic molecules & polymers, syntheses, characterization and applications
TOM 7 - Thermal radiation and energy management
TOM 8 - Non-linear and Quantum Optics
TOM 9 - Opto-electronic Nanotechnologies and Complex Systems
TOM 10 - Frontiers in Optical Metrology
TOM 11 - Tapered optical fibers, from fundamental to applications
TOM 12 - Optofluidics
TOM 13 - Advances and Applications of Optics and Photonics
EU Project Session
Early Stage Researcher Session

More information on the Topical Meetings

Select a date or location to show only sessions at that day or location. Select a single session for a detailed view (with abstracts and downloads when you are logged in as a registered attendee). The rest of the TOM sessions, EU project session, tutorials, and Early Stage Researcher session will be updated soon. Thank you for your patience!

Please note that all times are shown in the time zone of the conference. The current conference time is: 6th Dec 2022, 09:55:14pm WET

 
Only Sessions at Location/Venue 
 
 
Session Overview
Location: B231
2nd floor, 70 seats
Date: Tuesday, 13/Sept/2022
11:30am - 1:00pmTOM9 S01: Opto-electronic Nanotechnologies and Complex Systems: Plasmonics
Location: B231
Session Chair: Vito Mocella, CNR, Italy
 
11:30am - 12:00pm
Invited
ID: 307 / TOM9 S01: 1
TOM 9 Opto-electronic Nanotechnologies and Complex Systems

All-dielectric sensing platform based on bound states in the continuum: biological and healthcare applications

Silvia Romano

CNR, Italy

Large-area and transparent all-dielectric metasurfaces sustaining photonic bound states in the continuum (BICs) provide a set of fundamental advantages for ultrasensitive biosensing. A BIC is a special mode in the energy continuum of free space waves that cannot couple with free-space radiation, which leads to a diverging radiative Q-factor and a topological singularity in the reciprocal space. Here, we present several applications of BICs for surface amplification of fluorescence emission and Raman scattering, biological and chemical sensing with capability of detecting ultralow-weight molecules and protein traces. This approach aims at a precise and ultrasensitive approach for developing low-cost point-of-care tools suitable for routine disease prescreening analyses in laboratory, also adaptable to industrial production control and can be extended to many other applications for studying physical, chemical, and biological processes.



12:00pm - 12:15pm
ID: 264 / TOM9 S01: 2
TOM 9 Opto-electronic Nanotechnologies and Complex Systems

Plasmonic and 2D-TMD nanoarrays for large-scale photon harvesting and enhanced molecular photo-bleaching

Giulio Ferrando1, Matteo Gardella1, Matteo Barelli1, Debsree Chowdhury1, Pham Duy Long2, Nguyen Si Hieu2, Maria Caterina Giordano1, Francesco Buatier De Mongeot1

1Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova, Italy; 2Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Hanoi, Vietnam

The urgent environmental and energy challenges require novel solutions for efficient light harvesting and conversion in new-generation ultra-thin devices. Plasmonic nanoantennas and flat optics nanogratings can promote light matter interaction at the nanoscale being very attractive for ultra-thin photonics and sensing applications. In this work we developed two light trapping solutions based on large-scale nanomaterials. The first system is a large-scale (cm2) plasmonic metasurface based on self-organized gold nanostripes. The second is based on the periodic re-shaping of ultra-thin semiconducting MoS2 layers forming large-area flat-optics nanogratings. Under this condition Rayleigh Anomalies can be resonantly excited thus promoting in-plane light confinement and photon absorption into the few-layers material. To demonstrate the impact of these nanopatterned systems in photon harvesting we probed their efficiency into a prototypal photochemical reaction: the photo-bleaching of Methylene Blue (MB). We demonstrate the resonant enhancement of the photo-bleaching of these polluting dye molecules promoted either by the localized plasmon resonance in Au nanostripes or by the Rayleigh Anomaly in flat-optics MoS2 nanogratings. We investigate this effect through a quantitative analysis of the solution photodissociation induced by a monochromatic light. These results show the strong potential of flat-optics templates for light-harvesting and energy conversion in ultra-thin photonic devices.



12:15pm - 12:45pm
Invited
ID: 346 / TOM9 S01: 3
TOM 9 Opto-electronic Nanotechnologies and Complex Systems

3D Chiral metamaterials for biosensing

Vittorianna Tasco

CNR, Italy

In this contribution we will discuss the experimental application of 3D chiral metamaterials as high sensitivity biosensors, exploiting circular dichroism in transmission. 3D metamaterials with chiral features can be realized by highly accurate and highly localized bottom-up nanofabrication approach. Large chiroptical effects can be engineered, originating from the single element optical resonances, but collective interactions in arrayed configurations can play a significant role, further enhancing these effects. Capability of biomarker detection in the femtomolar range is demonstrated even in complex biofluid matrix.

 
2:30pm - 4:00pmTOM9 S02: Opto-electronic Nanotechnologies and Complex Systems: Ligth Matter inetraction
Location: B231
Session Chair: Emilija Petronijevic, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
 
2:30pm - 3:00pm
Invited
ID: 343 / TOM9 S02: 1
TOM 9 Opto-electronic Nanotechnologies and Complex Systems

Light emission from color centers in phosphorus-doped diamond

Florian Sledz1, Assegid M. Flatae1, Stefano Lagomarsino1,2, Savino Piccolomo3, Shannon S. Nickley4,5, Ken Haenen4, Robert Rechenberg6, Michael F. Becker6, Silvio Sciortino2,7, Nicla Gelli2, Lorenzo Giuntini2,7, Giorgio Speranza3, Mario Agio1,8

1University of Siegen, Laboratory of Nano-Optics, 57072 Siegen, Germany; 2Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Firenze, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy; 3Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro Materiali e Microsistemi, 38122 Trento, Italy; 4Hasselt University & IMEC, Institute for Material Research (IMO) & IMOMEC, 3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium; 5University of Oxford, Department of Materials, Oxford OX1 2PH, United Kingdom; 6Fraunhofer USA, Center for Coatings and Diamond Technologies, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA; 7University of Florence, Departimento di Fisica e Astronomia, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy; 8National Research Council (CNR), National Institute of Optics (INO), 50125 Florence, Italy

Light emission from color centers in diamond is being extensively investigated for developing, among other quantum devices, single-photon sources operating at room temperature. By doping diamond with phosphorus, one obtains an n-type semiconductor, which can be exploited for the electrical excitation of color centers. Here, we discuss the optical properties of color centers in phosphorus-doped diamond, especially the silicon-vacancy center, presenting the single-photon emission characteristics and the temperature dependence aiming for electroluminescent single-photon emitting devices.



3:00pm - 3:15pm
ID: 316 / TOM9 S02: 2
TOM 9 Opto-electronic Nanotechnologies and Complex Systems

Tunable photoconductive devices based on graphene/WSe2 heterostructures

Hongyu Tang, Giulia Tagliabue

Laboratory of Nanoscience for Energy Technologies (LNET),EPFL, Switzerland

Optoelectronic tunability in van der Waals heterostructures is essential for their optoelectronic applications. In this work, tunable photoconductive properties were investigated in the heterostructures of WSe2 and monolayer graphene with different stacking orders on SiO2/Si substrates. Here, we demonstrated the effect of the material thickness of WSe2 and graphene on the interfacial charge transport, light absorption, and photoresponses. The results showed that the WSe2/graphene heterostructure exhibited positive photoconductivity after photoexcitation, while negative photoconductivity was observed in the graphene/WSe2 heterostructures. The tunable photoconductive behaviors provide promising potential applications of van der Waals heterostructures in optoelectronics. This work has guiding significance for the realization of stacking engineering in van der Waals heterostructures.



3:15pm - 3:30pm
ID: 297 / TOM9 S02: 3
TOM 9 Opto-electronic Nanotechnologies and Complex Systems

Field-enhancing tapered planarized waveguides for THz quantum cascade laser frequency combs

Urban Senica1, Andres Forrer1, Tudor Olariu1, Paolo Micheletti1, Sara Cibella2, Guido Torrioli2, Mattias Beck1, Jérôme Faist1, Giacomo Scalari1

1Quantum Optoelectronics Group, Institute of Quantum Electronics, ETH Zürich, Switzerland; 2Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, CNR, Rome, Italy

We present a new planarized waveguide geometry for THz quantum cascade laser frequency combs with improved waveguide losses, RF and thermal dissipation properties. Ridge devices display broadband free-running comb states, and the THz emission can be further broadened by RF injection. Tapered waveguide devices feature a strong field-enhancement effect, which results in an improved comb performance. This includes free-running comb states with strong single beatnotes up to nearly -30 dBm at 90 K, almost three orders of magnitude stronger than for ridge devices. Improved comb operation is maintained also for high operating temperatures, up to 115 K.



3:30pm - 4:00pm
Invited
ID: 356 / TOM9 S02: 4
TOM 9 Opto-electronic Nanotechnologies and Complex Systems

Photonic metasurfaces for optical manipulation applications

Andrea Di Falco, Tomasz Plaskocinski

University of St Andrews, United Kingdom

Metasurfaces are versatile tools for controlling the behaviour of light through the exact control of light scattering at an interface. Here, we adopt the metasurface technology for optical manipulation applications, using their form factor and light-momentum engineering ability to enable new form of light-matter interactions. The resulting lab-on-chip platform offers unique advantages for biophotonic applications, including single molecule force spectroscopy and biological imaging.

 
4:30pm - 6:00pmTOM9 S03: Opto-electronic Nanotechnologies and Complex Systems: Novel effects I
Location: B231
Session Chair: Lucio Claudio Andreani, University of Pavia, Italy
 
4:30pm - 5:00pm
Invited
ID: 329 / TOM9 S03: 1
TOM 9 Opto-electronic Nanotechnologies and Complex Systems

Demonstration of Cognitive Bias on a Noisy Intermediate-Scale Quantum Processor

Fabio Antonio Bovino1, Alessandro Comi2

1Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 2TIM S.p.A.

The decision-making process of the individual is analogous to the collapse of a quantum system at the moment of measurement, whereby quantum system we mean the decision-maker, his mental processes and the environmental context that influences him in his choices. Classical probability depends on the lack of information, quantum probability is instead intrinsic to the system to be studied, meaning that the system, consisting of the decision-maker and the context, is in a superposition of states, each with its own amplitude of probability. Only the measurement process (the decision) selects in the decision maker a specific state among those in which he was overlapping. We demonstrated on a Noisy Intermediate –Scale Quantum Processor the model of the “order effect”, one of the most important cognitive bias.



5:00pm - 5:15pm
ID: 236 / TOM9 S03: 2
TOM 9 Opto-electronic Nanotechnologies and Complex Systems

THz frequency combs form dispersion-compensated antenna-coupled ring quantum cascade lasers

Paolo Micheletti1, Urban Senica1, Andres Forrer1, Sara Cibella2, Giudo Torrioli2, Mattias Beck1, Jerome Faist1, Giacomo Scalari1

1Institute of Quantum Electronics, Physics Department, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2CNR-Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Rome, Italy

We report comb operation of RF injected ring Quantum Cascade Lasers. A coupled waveguide approach is implemented for dispersion compensation while passive bullseye antenna improves the device power extraction and far field. Phase sensitive measurements are presented which hints at the presence of soliton state.



5:15pm - 5:30pm
ID: 204 / TOM9 S03: 3
TOM 9 Opto-electronic Nanotechnologies and Complex Systems

Nature engineered metasurfaces: spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in diatom frustules

Edoardo De Tommasi, Maria Antonietta Ferrara, Giuseppe Coppola, Gianluigi Zito

CNR-ISASI, Italy

Evolution provided, through eras, several animal, vegetal, and protist species with sub-micrometric constituent structures able to manipulate light at the nanoscale in non trivial ways. In particular, diatoms are single-celled microalgae enclosed in a porous silica shell, the frustule, perforated by regular patterns of micro- and nano-pores and whose functionalities comprise mechanical stability, sorting of nutrients from harmful agents and optimization of sunlight harvesting. Photonic properties of frustules include focusing, photoluminescence, and optical activity, among others. In the present work we show preliminary results concerning the ability of single valves of Arachnoidiscus ehrenbergii diatom frustules to manipulate incoming, circularly polarized radiation in such a way to generate light beams provided with orbital angular momentum (optical vortices). The combination of cross-polarization imaging in different spectral ranges, polarization sensitive digital holographic imaging (PSDHI), and interferometry allowed characterizing the valves and detecting the presence of spin-orbit coupling induced by their ultrastructure.

 
Date: Wednesday, 14/Sept/2022
9:00am - 10:30amTOM9 S04: Opto-electronic Nanotechnologies and Complex Systems: Novel effetcts II and chirality
Location: B231
Session Chair: Silvia Romano, CNR, Italy
 
9:00am - 9:30am
Invited
ID: 134 / TOM9 S04: 1
TOM 9 Opto-electronic Nanotechnologies and Complex Systems

Polarization singularities and optical chirality in dielectric metasurfaces

Lucio Claudio Andreani1, Dario Gerace1, Momchil Minkov2, Luca Zagaglia1, Simone Zanotti1

1Department of Physics, University of Pavia, Italy; 2Flexcompute, Inc., Belmont, MA 02478, USA

We theoretically study the relation between polarization singularities and optical properties in dielectric metasurfaces, or photonic crystal slabs. We focus on nondegenerate photonic bands leading to symmetry-protected Bound States in a Continuum (BICs). First, we discuss how BICs lead to polarization singularities in the far field, whose winding numbers – or topological charges – follows from the symmetry of the lattice. Then, we determine the polarization properties via the Stokes parameters, focusing on the conditions for the occurrence of a nonvanishing circular polarization. Finally, we calculate the optical response in reflection and the degree of circular dichroism. The results shed light on the role of polarization singularities and symmetry in determining the optical chirality.



9:30am - 9:45am
ID: 330 / TOM9 S04: 2
TOM 9 Opto-electronic Nanotechnologies and Complex Systems

Metasurface Characterization by using Stokes Parameters

Rincy Kunjumov, Fabio Antonio Bovino, Riccardo Falsini, Concita Sibilia

Università di Roma La Sapienza, Italy

The development of metamaterials-based devices and applications has sparked a surge in interest since they were first realized. Metamaterials are novel artificial materials with unique electromagnetic properties not seen in natural materials. Natural materials such as glass, diamond, wood such have positive electrical permittivity, magnetic permeability, and an index of refraction. But for some other newly engineered metamaterials have negative values for the mentioned material parameters. With these unusual material parameters, Various forms of miniaturized antennas and microwave components/devices for the wireless communications and defence industries can be designed. Metamaterials also can precisely control how light travels through a material. This enables optical systems that were traditionally bulky to be reduced to tiny sizes. We analysed the characterisation of the Metasurface Samples Au-Nanosphere and Au-Nanohole.Characterization was done with the help of stokes parameters by analysis the information about the output polarization of light once the generated input polarization of light interacts with the passive Metasurface samples. Prepared input polarization is pure, and it is equivalent to the quantum representation |φ> (ket). State that after the sample interaction is <φ| (bra)



9:45am - 10:15am
Invited
ID: 233 / TOM9 S04: 3
TOM 9 Opto-electronic Nanotechnologies and Complex Systems

Characterization of output circular polarization degree in lowcost asymmetric metasurfaces

Emilija Petronijevic1, Alessandro Belardini1, Zakaria El-ansary2, Bilal Brioual3, Hari Prasath Ram Kumar1, Tiziana Cesca4, Carlo Scian4, Giovanni Mattei4, Concita Sibilia1

1Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; 2Ibn Tofail University Kénitra, Morocco; 3Abdelmalek Essaâdi University Tanger, Morocco; 4University of Padova, Physics and Astronomy Department, Padova, Italy

Addition of asymmetry in plasmonic nanostructures can lead to chiro-optical phenomena, usually monitored as different absorption of left and right polarization, i.e. circular dichroism. Moreover, interesting features arise when the nanostructure changes the polarization state of the input beam. In this work, we perform extrinsic chirality characterization in a widely tuneable near-infrared range, by monitoring both polarization of the input and of the transmitted beam. We characterize low-cost metasurfaces based on polystyrene nanospheres asymmetrically covered by Ag, by exciting them at different angle of incidence with left, right and linear polarization. We then resolve the circular polarization degree of the transmitted beam, demonstrating resonance-governed circular polarization degree in the output, showing the interplay of both intrinsic and extrinsic chirality.

 
2:30pm - 4:00pmTOM9 S05: Opto-electronic Nanotechnologies and Complex Systems: Nanostructures
Location: B231
Session Chair: Concita Sibilia, Università di Roma La Sapienza, Italy
 
2:30pm - 3:00pm
Invited
ID: 349 / TOM9 S05: 1
TOM 9 Opto-electronic Nanotechnologies and Complex Systems

Nanostructured films of two-dimensional materials: electronic transport, electronic devices and wearable electronics

Felice Torrisi

Imperial College London/Universita' di Catania, United Kingdom

Wearable electronics is a primary technology to enable remote healthcare provision, which is highly important in a post-pandemic society. Graphene and related 2D materials (GRMs) hold a great potential for wearable electronics for their novel electrical and optical properties.



3:00pm - 3:15pm
ID: 221 / TOM9 S05: 2
TOM 9 Opto-electronic Nanotechnologies and Complex Systems

Active tuning of the optical response of field-effect-gated transparent conductive oxides

Maria Sygletou1, Emilio Bellingeri2, Maurizio Canepa1, Francesco Bisio2

1OPTMATLAB Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova, Italy; 2CNR-SPIN, Corso F.M. Perrone 24, 16152 Genova, Italy

Transparent Conductive Oxides (TCOs) are a class of materials with high optical transparency and electrical conductivity. This combination makes them extremely appealing for solar cells, optoelectronics and infrared-plasmonics applications. In this work, we report the active tuning of the optical response of aluminium-doped ZnO (AZO) films upon electrical gating within a parallel-plate capacitor configuration. We investigated the electrical-bias-dependent optical response of thin AZO films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Calculations based on an exponentially-decaying spatial distribution of injected/depleted charge density in the AZO film are in accordance with experimental observations, allowing the extraction of the Debye length.



3:15pm - 3:45pm
Invited
ID: 391 / TOM9 S05: 3
TOM 9 Opto-electronic Nanotechnologies and Complex Systems

Ultrasensitive PCR and label-free optical biosensors based on photonics transduction

Sabrina Conoci

Università di Messina, Italy

The molecular analysis of Nucleic Acids (NA), DNA and RNA, has become nowadays crucial in many medical fields for early and accurate diagnosis, personalized therapy and preventive screening. It is particularly relevant in the field of the infectious diseases that can catastrophically affect the health of population, as it is the case of the current pandemics due to the SARS-CoV-2 virus that – up to now – infected up to 434 millions of people causing 6 millions of deaths worldwide. Currently, the molecular analysis of NA is based on PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) method, that however includes complex procedures (sample preparation and detection); this limits, de facto, its use for massive screening. In this contribution, two PCR- free innovative approaches using photonics transduction are presented and discussed. Both approaches are based on the capture of whole genomes of pathogens at inorganic surface (silicon or electrode surface) through cooperative hybridization with two complementary capture probes (single strand DNA or RNA) immobilized on this surface.

 
Date: Thursday, 15/Sept/2022
8:30am - 10:00amTOM6 S03: Optical Materials: crystals, thin films, organic molecules and polymers, syntheses, characterization and devices: Optical materials and devices
Location: B231
Session Chair: Sebastien Montant, CEA CESTA, France
 
8:30am - 9:00am
Invited
ID: 347 / TOM6 S03: 1
TOM 6 Optical Materials: crystals, thin films, organic molecules & polymers, syntheses, characterization and devices

Classical and quantum light sources based on colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals

Francesco Di Stasio

Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Italy

Here I will present some recent application of semiconductor nanocrystals in optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and single photon emitters (SPEs). In particular I will focus on how III-V semiconductor nanocrystals such as InAs are promising candidates for RoHS complaiant near- infrared LEDs, and how the solution processing of colloidal nanocrystals can be exploited for the fabrication of small-footprint electrically driven SPEs.



9:00am - 9:15am
ID: 194 / TOM6 S03: 2
TOM 6 Optical Materials: crystals, thin films, organic molecules & polymers, syntheses, characterization and devices

Thermal effects reduction in a diode side-pumped rod-like bonded α-quartz||Nd:glass||α-quartz amplifying medium

Thomas Dubé1,2, Patrice Camy2, Sébastien Montant1

1CEA CESTA, 33116 Le Barp, France; 2CIMAP ENSICAEN, UMR 6252, 6 boulevard du Maréchal Juin, 14050 CAEN Cedex, France

We present a numerical study of a square-shape rod-like bonded laser gain medium operating at 1053 nm. The sample is composed of a 5-mm thick Nd-doped phosphate glass bonded to two α-quartz crystals. Owing to this face cooling scheme, the heat generated in the gain medium is effectively reduced, hence resulting in less optical distortions. The simulation of the thermomechanical effects was conducted using COMSOL MultiPhysics® software. Transverse wavefront distortion and birefringence profiles were computed for a given pump mean power. Wavefront and birefringence measurements will be conducted on the bonded sample using a pump-probe setup which is discussed in this paper. These measurements will be presented and weighed with the numerical results.



9:15am - 9:30am
ID: 128 / TOM6 S03: 3
TOM 6 Optical Materials: crystals, thin films, organic molecules & polymers, syntheses, characterization and devices

Design and investigation of a low-threshold organic laser diode using mixed-order DFB cavities

Yara El Droubi, Quentin Gaimard, Jeanne Solard, Mahmoud Chakaroun, Azzedine Boudrioua

Université Sorbonne Paris Nors, France

In this work, we experimentally and theoretically investigate the optical and electrical optimization of an OLED associated to a mixed-order DFB cavity. We, firstly focus on the design and the fabrication of a mixed-order DFB cavity with a high quality factor. We particularly study the impact of the deposition of the organic layers on the topology and the quality factor of the cavity.



9:30am - 9:45am
ID: 295 / TOM6 S03: 4
TOM 6 Optical Materials: crystals, thin films, organic molecules & polymers, syntheses, characterization and devices

Organophosphorus emitters for OLEDs

Muriel Hissler1, Pierre-Antoine Bouit2, Denis Tondelier3, Bernard Geffroy4

1University of Rennes 1, France; 2University of Rennes 1, France; 3Ecole Polytechnique; 4Ecole Polytechnique

In this paper, we present the development of OLEDs using organophosphorus derivatives as emitters. In this study, we were able to show that the structural variations carried out on phospholes, phosphinines and phosphepines (functionalization of the phosphorus atom, nature of the substituents) make it possible to modulate the emission wavelengths and, thus, the emission colour of the diodes. Using this concept, we were able to develop TADF and chiral organophosphorus emitters and hybrids emitting at different wavelengths which can be used for the development of OLEDs. The diode structures used are simple and provide high external quantum yields



9:45am - 10:00am
ID: 118 / TOM6 S03: 5
TOM 6 Optical Materials: crystals, thin films, organic molecules & polymers, syntheses, characterization and devices

Simultaneous oscillation of dual optical parametric oscillators on monolithic chi(2) nonlinear photonic crystals

KaiHsun Chang1,2, ChiaChun Fan1, MingShung Tsai1, FuHsiang Yang1, Safia Mohand Ousaid2, Azzedine Boudrioua2, LungHan Peng1

1National Taiwan University, Taiwan; 2Université Paris 13, France

Simultaneous oscillation of two pairs of signals and idlers was demonstrated. We also showed the efficiency of the sum frequency generation of two idlers was comparable with second harmonic generation of each idler. Our design shows the potential of building multi-wavelength laser source from UV to NIR on monolithic crystal.

 

 
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