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Development of passive flux samplers as a technology for the estimation of N2O emission from livestock buildings: commercial scale evaluation
ARACELI DALILA LARIOS- MARTINEZ1,2,4, Stéphane Godbout1, Joahnn H. Palacios1, Dan Zegan1, Antonio Avalos Ramírez3, Satinder Kaur Brar2, Fabiola Sandoval-Salas4
1Institut de Recherche et de Développement en Agroenvironnement (IRDA-Canada); 2Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS-ETE -Canada); 3Centre National en Électrochimie et en Technologies Environnementales (CNETE- Canada); 4Instituto Tecnológico Superior de Perote(ITSPe-México)
In order to contribute to the development of technologies for the estimation of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from livestock sources, passive flux samplers (PFS) were developed and evaluated at commercial scale. The measurements were carried out in a room of two commercial farms. PFS packed with zeolite 5A were first calibrated in the laboratory. After that, two PFS were placed in the ventilation shafts facing the air flow direction. The zeolite 5A used as collector medium in each PFS was changed at different sampling times (from 8 to 60 min). Three samplings by day were made (including all the samplings times) at each farm during three days. In the end of the sampling period, the used zeolite 5A was transported to the laboratory to desorb and quantify by gas chromatography the mass of N2O collected. Then, the mass flow of N2O issued (g/h) was estimated. At the same time, N2O concentrations was directly measured by gas chromatography by pumping the air from the rooms to a mobile laboratory. Air flow rate, humidity and temperature, were also measured during the entire experiment to estimate the mass flow by direct detection. Results showed that the performance of the PFS was appropriated with an accuracy higher than 80% versus direct detection under evaluated conditions. Furthermore, taking into account the complete experiment, a PFS methodology to estimate N2O emission by day is suggested. It is concluded that the PFS can be considered as an innovative tecnology to estimate N2O emissions from livestock buildings.
3:20pm - 3:40pm
Effect of Slatted Floor Configuration on Air Quality and Floor Cleanliness in Sow Gestation Rooms
Xiaojie Yan, Qiang Zhang, Laurie Connor
University of Manitoba, Canada
This study was part of a larger investigation of the effects of slat to slot ratio of slatted concrete floor on sow comfort and indoor environment for group housed gestating sows. Based on kinematic tests, two different designs of concrete slatted floor were installed in two gestation rooms: room #1 with 105 mm wide slats and 19 mm slots; and room #2 with 125 mm wide slats and 25 mm slots. The purpose of this paper was to compare air quality between these two different floor designs. Temperature and relative humidity were recorded continuously in each room for 9 weeks (test period) during each of two sow gestation periods. Ammonia concentrations were measured as an air quality indicator. Time-lapse cameras in each room took pictures of the pen floor hourly every Tuesday during the test periods, and the pictures were then analyzed to assess the cleanliness of the floors. Preliminary results showed that there were no significant differences in ammonia concentration and cleanliness of the floors between the two slat designs. The two floor configurations had the same performance in terms of manure drainage and air quality (ammonia level).
3:40pm - 4:00pm
Impact of re-designing ventilation system of gestation barns converted from stalls to group sow housing system
Alvin Alvarado1, Bernardo Predicala1, Richard Baah1, Jingjing Cabahug1,2
1Prairie Swine Centre Inc.; 2Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Saskatchewan
Most gestation farms in Canada are currently facing a challenge of converting traditional stalls to a more welfare-friendly group housing system to meet regulatory and societal demands for improved animal welfare in pig production. In the barn conversion process, most pig farmers focus mainly on remodeling the penning and floor layout, while the ventilation system is frequently neglected or overlooked. In this project, a new ventilation system design determined from our previous computer simulation work was implemented in an actual gestation room. In-barn evaluation of its impact on energy costs, indoor air quality, and sow productivity showed that the room with the new ventilation system was more effective in removing heat and contaminants (CO2) from the animal occupied zone during both summer and winter seasons compared to the room with the unmodified ventilation system. The new ventilation system achieved about 14% reduction in natural gas consumption during the heating season and 13% reduction in electricity consumption to ventilate the fans during the cooling season. Animal performance was not adversely or beneficially impacted with the installation of the new ventilation system. Cost analysis showed that energy savings from this modified ventilation system can readily offset the capital and operating costs for installing the system, with estimated payback period of about 1.8 years. The results from this project will be used together with existing knowledge on gestation barn floor lay-out options to ensure converted facility operates efficiently both in terms of improved sow welfare and performance as well as energy efficiency.
4:00pm - 4:20pm
Impact of floor type on odor and gas emissions in swine housing: literature review and preliminary study
Stéphane Godbout1, Sébastien Turcotte2, Joahnn Palacios1, Marie-Aude Ricard2, Frédéric Pelletier1, Dan Zegan1, Laura Daniela Mila Saavedra1,3,4, Alain Rousseau3, Alfonso Parra-Coronado4
1IRDA, Canada; 2CDPQ, Canada; 3INRS, Canada; 4Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Colombia
To improve cohabitation and reduce apprehension in the municipalities, future buildings in swine production should be designed and built for generating less odors and harmful and pollutants gases than old buildings. However, a misunderstanding of the influence of housing design on odor emissions and a high variability in emission values were revealed by the review conducted by Godbout et al. (2012). In addition to these gaps, studies often provide poor precise description of buildings. For establishing a representative emission value and contributing to the design of new generation buildings, this project aims to evaluate the hypothesis that increasing the percentage of slatted floor significantly reduces odor and gas (NH3, CH4 and N2O) emissions. Tests are being carried out during the writing of this abstract, however, paper will present the detailed results. Mainly, the paper presents first an update of the information from an exhaustive review of the recent studies, and second, the results of a preliminary comparison study. For this study, odor and gas emissions from a fully slatted floor barn are compared to 1/3 slatted floor (2/3 solid floor barn). Emissions will be calculated and analysed in order to compare both floor types and to develop a simplified and economical method for emission measurement in further tests in other 12 barns. Results of this second stage will be available in future publications. The whole set of results will make possible to determine the type of floor emitting less odors and thus facilitate acceptance of construction or renovation projects of swine producers.
4:20pm - 4:40pm
Design and evaluation of a prototype mechanically ventilated swine transport trailer with air filtration system
1Prairie Swine Centre Inc.; 2Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Saskatchewan; 3Canadian Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture, University of Saskatchewan
Airborne diseases can cause significant economic losses to the Canadian swine industry through actual loss in animal productivity, added costs of medication and eradication measures, and even potential loss of access to markets for Canadian pigs. Recently, another disease, Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea (PED), has emerged as a serious threat to the industry. Although PED is not known to be transmitted airborne, contaminated transport trailers were identified as one of the main routes for spreading the PED virus. Hence, the main goal of this project is to develop an improved design for transport trailer that will facilitate control of airborne pathogen contamination, improve operational efficiencies, and address the biosecurity threat posed by transport trailers. Initial design of the trailer was developed based on inputs from stakeholders and was further refined by computer simulation using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Various ventilation design configurations based on number and location of air inlets and outlets on the trailer were simulated under Saskatchewan conditions. Based on heat removal efficiency (HRE) and thermal condition predicted inside the animal compartment, the best design configuration was selected for sensitivity analysis. Results indicated that a 5-kW heating system and a water misting system are required to keep the thermal conditions inside the trailer within the animal comfort zone when outside temperature is below -10°C in winter and above 22°C in summer, respectively. Based on the modified design, a prototype trailer is currently being constructed, and key findings from the subsequent testing of the prototype will be presented.