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Session 5C: "Agricultural Machinery and Technologies"
1:00pm - 2:40pm
Session Chair: Jason Morrison
Draft force Prediction for High Speed Disc Tillage Implement
Mohammad Sadek1, Zhiwei Zeng2, Ying Chen2
1Buhler Industries inc, Canada; 2University of Manitoba, Canada
Modern tillage practice is moving from slower to faster speed and smaller to very large in size. Because of higher speed and large machine size agricultural power requirement has increased significantly. In order to accommodate the new tillage machines within current tractor power capacity, new tillage implements are designed in different forms with conventional tillage. High speed disc tillage implements are operating at shallower depths and the discs are arranged with a gang and pitch (rake) angles to get better residue management and adequate soil disturbance in the fields. Draft force requirement for high speed disc tillage implements is not well established yet. It has become essential to determine the power requirement of high speed disc implements. In this study, draft force required for an individually mounted disc will be measured in a laboratory soil bin. Test will be conducted for dry soil with two different depths and soil compaction levels. Measured draft will be compared with ASABE standard and other empirical equations developed for draft force calculations. Variation with other standard formula will be useful as current ASABE standard and other empirical equations do not include the pitch (rake) angle for draft force prediction. A PFC3D model will be developed to simulate the draft force for new tillage equipment. Model will be used to optimize power requirement for different gang and pitch (rake) angle arrangements for best soil cutting performance.
Effect of Different Row Spacings and Seeders on Yield and Speed of Emergence for Corn
Craig Michael Heppner1, Ying Chen1, Chuanhua Yang2
1University of Manitoba, Canada; 2Jiamusi University, China
Corn yield and speed of emergence are important performance indicators for seeders. A field study was conducted investigating the effects of row spacing as well as two different seeders on speed of emergence and yield. Row spacings that were compared included 7.5 inch, 15 inch, 30 inch and paired rows (7.5 inch pairs, 30 inches on centre). The two seeders compared were a twin row Monosem planter and a Salford 522 air drill. Seeding depth and seeded population were intended to be held constant while emergence and yield were investigated. Measurements taken included furrow profile data, seeding depth, emerged population, speed of emergence, and yield. The planter had a wider and shallower average furrow profile than the air drill, leading to seeding depths of 44.8 mm and 52.4 mm, respectively. The planter also had much more uniform seeding depth. Emerged population was found to be 10.2 plants/m2 for the planter and 8.8 plants/m2 for air drill plots. The speed of emergence for planter plots was 2.5 plants/day/m2 compared to 1.6 plants/day/m2 for air drill plots. Yield for the planter and air drill plots was 11032 kg/ha and 10458 kg/ha, respectively. The 15 inch and 7.5 inch plots had higher yields than the 30 inch and paired row plots. Yield had a linear relationship with speed of emergence with an R2 of 0.38. The precise seed placement of the planter was shown to improve yield compared to the air drill.
Lodged Sugarcane Assessment Using Digital Image Processing
Md Abdul Momin, Paul Wempe, Tony Grift, Alan Hansen
University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, United States of America
Sugarcane lodging is a common issue, however, reliable methods of quantifying the degree of lodging have not been developed. The ability to assess the extent of lodging in the field using digital image processing techniques will lead to the implementation of many precision agriculture techniques, such as lodging maps to further the assessment of spatial variability within a cropping system. Images of lodged sugarcane in the field were acquired from various directions by installing camera at different locations of harvester, tractor and wagon. High resolution color camera was used to capture the lodged sugarcane images. These acquired sugarcane images were processed using various image processing techniques such as image segmentation, summing up binary pixels, texture analysis, edge detection, and vertical and horizontal edge pixel measurement to develop a robust image processing algorithm in order to detect and quantify lodging. Among different image processing approach presented in this study the vertical edge signature data showed works effectively. The relationship of vertical edge direction feature with degree of rotation for the upright green cane, lodged green and burnt sugarcane shown clear separation among them. The percent analysis in terms of pixel count of different type of sugarcane condition under various category of lodging were also observed. Upright green cane examples show much greater percentage of erect stems (on average 45%) and less amount of recumbent cane (on average 24%). Whereas for both condition of lodged cane the greater percentage of stem fall into recumbent category about on average 42%.
Soil bin tests and discrete element modeling of a disc opener
Steven Murray, Ying Chen
Soil disturbance and cutting force are two of the most common performance indicators for seed openers. In this study, the effect of changing the disc tilt and gang angles on soil throw distance, draft force, vertical force, and lateral force was investigated through measurements in an indoor soil bin and modeling using Particle Flow Code in Three Dimensions (PFC3D), a discrete element modeling software. In the soil bin experiment, the disc was tested at a depth of 37.5 mm and different vertical tilt angles (0°, 10°, and 20°). Forces and soil throw resulting from the opener were measured. The model was validated using the draft and vertical force results from the experiment. The absolute average percent difference for soil throw results was found to be 10.53%, which indicated a strong relation between the model and experimental results. Force results in the model demonstrated an opposite trend from experimental results where increasing the angle in the model reduced the required draft loading and vertical loading. Results from the model and experiment illustrated that discrete element modeling is a strong tool for use in the design process.
Simulation of Two-Phase Flow Conditions in Air Seeder Systems for Control System Applications
Jason D.M. Cousins, Scott D. Noble
University of Saskatchewan
Air seeders distribute seed and granular fertilizers to numerous tillage implements through a distributed pneumatic conveying system. Current practice uses excessive conveying speeds to reduce the risk of settling and blockages within the conveying lines. Real-time prediction of flow conditions and the influence of parallel conveying lines on each other could be used to improve the controllability and performance characteristics of existing air seeder system. Such improvements could potentially reduce hydraulic power demand and fossil fuel usage, reduce seed damage and increase germination rates. Therefore, this research seeks to determine if a simplistic, computationally efficient model can accurately represent the flow in the complex dynamic system.
Computer simulation has been applied to prediction of the two-phase, gas-particle flow found in air seeder primary conveying lines. A low-computational cost, one-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach is used. Treatment of the particle phase is conducted using a Eulerian-Eulerian (two-fluid) modeling framework in which particles are treated as a continuous medium. This produces a set of four coupled partial differential equations which govern the particle-laden pipe flow. Discretization of the governing equations is conducted using the finite volume method (FVM) and solution of the discrete equations follows the SIMPLE algorithm for incompressible flow. Using the described method, both transient and steady-state flow conditions are simulated for multiple conveying lines run in parallel, and reflect air seeder operating conditions. Simulation results are then compared to experimental data for validation and analysis.