Conference Agenda

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Session Overview
Tuesday, 05/July/2022:
3:30pm - 5:00pm

Session Chair: Martin VOLF
Location: Hall C

Circular construction

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3:30pm - 3:45pm

Ecotoxicological Assessment of Recycled Aggregate and Concrete via Aquatic Biotests


1University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6, Czech Republic; 2University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings of Czech Technical University in Prague, Thákurova 7, 166 29 Prague, Czech Republic

With the growing consumption of primary raw materials, the need for recycling of construction and demolition waste (CDW) arises. According to international and national regulations, any waste must be tested for ecotoxicity using a leaching test followed by chemical analysis and a set of aquatic toxicity biotests. Standardized leaching procedures have also been developed for construction materials and products and are used in common practice. On the other hand, studies aimed at direct determination of ecotoxicity are still lacking. Acute toxicity tests with unicellular algae, freshwater crustaceans, and marine bacteria are among the most popular for determining the ecotoxicological potential of recycled aggregates or concrete samples. The article deals with the perspective of semichronic and chronic tests with extended exposure, as well as testing of leachates obtained from leaching events for more than 24 hours. Results of performed experiments were compared and evaluated. From the point of view of sustainability, it is necessary to develop an optimal experimental design for the ecotoxicological evaluation of recycled aggregate and concrete. The conclusion of the paper is the evaluation of possible methods and their combinations.

3:45pm - 4:00pm

Circular Design Strategies Through Additive Manufacturing: Modom, a "Circular Building" Housing Model

Francesca GIGLIO, Massimo LAURIA, Sara SANSOTTA

Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Italy

The doubling of the global use of raw materials in the last century is an established environmental emergency due to an all too common 'take - make - dispose' linear development model. Strategic plans within the Green Deal, such as the Circular Economy Action Plan, highlight the key role of building design as an enabling driver for process cyclicality. Against this backdrop, the paper describes the results of an experimental research project aimed at the technological design of a 'circular' housing model. The integration of circular economy principles into the design process was pursued through the technology transfer of Additive Manufacturing principles as an enabling technology of Industry 4.0. The research is based on the first phase of critical analysis of two types of case studies: one referring to Circular Buildings, the other referring to 3D printed buildings, through a common reading method based on “circular” indicators extrapolated from the current literature. The evaluation of the results obtained determined the prerequisites for designing a replicable Circular Building model by 3D printing using a lignin-based biopolymer. The adoption and combination of these seemingly opposing themes was a key strength and asset to the project in terms of benefits such as energy savings, lead time, and cost savings at all life cycle stages.

4:00pm - 4:15pm

Measuring Circularity From Buildings To Neighbourhoods

Vanessa GOMES1, Sara VALDIVIA2, Lizzie PULGROSSI1, Maristela GOMES DA SILVA3

1School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urbanism, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Brazil; 2School of Technology, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Brazil; 3Federal University of Espirito Santo - UFES, Brazil

The circular economy (CE) aims to eliminate the concept of pollution and waste generation, maintain the integrity of the product over several use cycles, and focus on closing material and energy loops. Circularity metrics are relevant for monitoring, reporting and communicating CE implementation progress. Applied to buildings, these metrics deliver structured assessments through standardized indicators, which establish a common language among the agents involved, help implement strategies to assess the circular potential of technical options. Studies dealing with circularity metrics for buildings are still scarce and somewhat variable within and overall common framework. Applications to neighbourhoods are even more incipient. This study applied selected metrics to two building cases with different constructive characteristics, to improve the understanding on how information on circularity is conveyed. The selected metrics highlighted the circularity challenges for the two building designs. However, such metrics disregard the environmental impacts required to induce circular flows and loop closure. It is herein proposed that such metrics are paired with environmental performance profiles produced by e.g., life cycle assessments (LCA). The concept of ‘nested indicators’ could be applied to neighbourhood and city scales by referring to the LCA concept of functional equivalency as the ‘relevance’ weighting criterion.

4:15pm - 4:30pm

Catalogue of Construction Products Containing Secondary Raw Materials from Different Industries and Municipal Waste

Tereza PAVLŮ1, Jan PEŠTA1,2, Martin VOLF1, Antonín LUPÍŠEK1

1University Center for Energy Efficient Buildings of Technical University in Prague; 2Department of Sustainability and Product Ecology, Faculty of Environmental Technology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague

The building industry consumes a large amount of primary raw materials and also contributes significantly to the production of waste. Applying circular principles in this field to reduce resource consumption and waste production has been investigated in several projects considering the reuse or recycling of construction and demolition waste. However, consumption of primary raw materials can also be reduced by re-targetting waste from different industries and municipal waste to produce new construction products. Thus, opportunities for the recycling of industrial and municipal waste were investigated in this project. The main output is the catalogue, which provides an overview of products with recycled content and secondary materials with the potential to be used in the construction industry such as blast furnace slag, ash, and energy by-products. Also, it contains a list of valid requirements for the use of recycled materials under specific conditions of the Czech Republic. In addition, examples of good practice are presented to break the existing behavioral barriers to the use of secondary raw materials in the Czech construction industry. This contribution summarizes the findings in the field of industrial and municipal waste recycling and its further use as secondary raw materials in the construction industry.

4:30pm - 4:45pm

Circular Design in the Global South

Pekka HUOVILA1, Usha IYER-RANIGA2, Christina CHEONG3, Riya MALHOTRA4, Yatin CHOUDHARY4, Guillermo PENAGOS5

1Green Building Council Finland, Finland; 2RMIT University, Australia; 3Global Green Growth Institute, South Korea; 4The Energy and Resources Institute, India; 5UNESCO Chair on Sustainability, Colombia

One Planet Sustainable Buildings and Construction Programme (SBC), led by the Ministry of the Environment, Finland and co-led by RMIT University and UN Environment Programme was initiated in 2015. In its fourth and last two-year work plan 2021-2022, the focus areas are circular built environment and responsibly sourced materials. SBC has published State of Play for Circular Built Environment reports from Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, Middle East, North America and Oceania in a Special Track in the Beyond 2020 Conference together with a Global report that drew recommendations for action. In addition, the relevance of circularity in UN 2030 Agenda Goals and Indicators have been mapped in a global survey.

At present, the work continues in Africa, Asia and Latin America where case studies are collected from those regions following a common framework. The objective is to provide reliable performance data for responsibly sourced building materials exploiting circularity while supporting creation of local jobs. The results will be linked with our ongoing work in SDG12 Resource Efficient Housing project in Burkina Faso and Sri Lanka. This paper present key findings from the work.

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