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The current urge for buildings to meet environmental, social, and economic sustainability requirements creates a pressing demand for viable solutions. Internationally, social housing upgrading actions are mostly triggered by policy and regulations, that stimulate interventions, create financing mechanisms, and assign agents conducive to the retrofit process. The influence of e.g. European directives for energy efficiency and the recent ‘rehabilitation wave’ is evident. Brazil follows a different social housing delivery and management model, based on public provision of housing units and immediate individual property transfer as soon as they are completed. Post-delivery interventions rely solely on the occupant’s effort and expense. Furthermore, in social housing projects very little fat can be shred, so three main scopes emerge: what should be prioritized, what type of financing would it require/is available; and which project execution model and stakeholders would be involved. This paper focuses on the first scope (prioritizing actions). The critical review of three sustainability assessments (one Brazilian, one British, and one transnational) filtered retrofit-related items and informed about the relevance perception in varied contexts. Next, a systematic literature review identified the most frequent sustainability-oriented upgrading, and consultation with a construction professionals panel provided insights regarding technical feasibility and invasiveness of their implementation in single-family and multi-family social housing developments.
4:15pm - 4:30pm
Investigating The Change In Preference Of Living And Transport During Covid-19
Oskar Fredrik FAHLSTEDT, Winnie Gia Han MA
Norwegian University of Science and Technology
The COVID-19 pandemic meant that people had to perform most of their daily activities from home. This study intends to investigate if a period of working from home has changed living preferences concerning housing size and location. The data was collected through a web-based survey. The results demonstrate that the literature is divided regarding the potential benefits of increased utilization of home office as rebound effects from increased traveled on spare time could counterweight the benefits of reduced travel in cities. The majority of the respondents in this study want to work from home 2-3 days a week. Respondents that desire to move to a less central location state the lower cost for housing as one important reason. Analyses looking at the preference for larger homes in combination with increased use of home office was not covered in prevailing research. To achieve a holistic evaluation of the emissions related to a change in commuting, future research should expand the scope to evaluate more aspects than transport mode.
4:30pm - 4:45pm
Dynamics of Apartment Building Renovation Investment Costs Based on Estonian Reovation Grant Scheme
Grete MILLER, Lauri LIHTMAA, Targo KALAMEES
Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia
While energy prices have increased substantially recently, we also observe that renovation prices have increased twofold wihtin last decade. This could seriously affect the motivation to invest in building renovations because of negative yield and in turn jeopardise the carbon reduction plans. Therefore, we attempt to show some evidence of renovation cost dynamics based on sample of 112 apartment buildings which received state support for deep energy renovations during 2010 and 2017. We found that investments started out very cautiously in 2010. Eventually renovations were embraced as rational investment and renovations ambitions grow with prices. Construction price index grow during the study period 20 percent and renovations over two times. We could not confirm the popular hypothesis that demand pressure will also increase prices. However, most significant increase of renovation price was due to the additional construction works and quality improvement. This was especially evident after the redesign of grant rules in 2015 which allowed more indirect construction works to be eligible for the subsidy.
4:45pm - 5:00pm
Is It All About The Windows? Residents' Values In Residential Heritage Buildings
Freya WISE, Alice MONCASTER, Derek JONES
School of Engineering and Innovation, The Open University, United Kingdom
Reducing energy and associated carbon emissions from the built environment is fundamental to meeting our climate goals. Retrofit of existing buildings is therefore a key strategy. Heritage buildings present particular challenges for retrofitting because of their traditional construction and need to retain historic values. Replacing windows is often a critical element of a low energy retrofit, but for heritage buildings this can be problematic
This paper explores the values that residents invest in their windows, and the opportunities and challenges for retrofitting heritage fenestration. Qualitative data from 16 case studies of heritage buildings in the county of Cumbria, UK, is examined to gain a greater understanding of residents’ views, which are often neglected in policy approaches. Findings show that residents, in both designated and undesignated heritage buildings, value their original windows and appreciate the thermal benefits of traditional features such as shutters or curtains. Residents generally considered complete window replacement unacceptable but were more positive about options such as secondary glazing or internal shutters. Challenges, including costs and finding skilled tradespeople to produce shutters or undertake restoration were identified. The paper concludes with the implications of these findings for retrofitting heritage fenestration for carbon reduction.
5:00pm - 5:15pm
Rescue Of The Stone Bridge With Respect To Current State And Standards
Petr RERICHA1, Petr FAJMAN1, Lucy DAVIS2
1CTU, Czech Republic; 2McGill University, Faculty of Engineering, 45 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Canada
A three span stone masonry bridge dating back to the middle of the 19tth century, still in the roadway network, is assessed to prevent its demolition. Its industrial heritage value and ecological concerns were the principal reasons for the assessment. The carbon footprint of the stone arch replacement would be approximately 200t CO2 emission owing to 430 m3 reinforced concrete in the new structure. The owner demands that the bridge remains a full service part of the second class road network without limitations Its load capacity is checked against available standards. A combination of a structural analysis commercial software for linear 3D analysis with a dedicated noncommercial 2D code for the dominant nonlinear phenomenon – tension cracking of the bed joints is employed. Elastic interaction is accounted for of the three principal components of an arch bridge, the cracking stone vault, the backfill of cohesionless soil and the reconstructed pavement slab of reinforced concrete. The bridge with the new pavement meets the national and European standards conditions. The owner decided to preserve the bridge. Besides a cultural monument, considerable energy, CO2 emissions and natural resources can be saved in accordance with the of the sustainable development goals.
5:15pm - 5:22pm
Oldest Concrete Vaulted and Arch Bridges in the Czech Republic - Evaluation and Preservation of Their Historical Value
Roman ŠAFÁŘ, Vladislav HRDOUŠEK, Helena VČELOVÁ, Vendula HLAVNIČKOVÁ
Faculty of Civil Engineering of CTU in Prague, Czech Republic
The paper is related to a research project focused on tools for an evaluation and preservation of the historical value and function of arch and vaulted road bridges. It deals with the beginning of use of concrete vaulted and arch bridges in the area of the Czech Republic from the first structures built at the end of the 19th century up to the time just before the WWII. The paper includes examples of built structures as well as a general summary and development of the used technical solutions. Important part of the paper is a proposal of criterions for evaluation of their structural and historical value.