4:00pm - 4:15pm
Integral Planning – Potentials and Challenges for the Construction of Timber Buildings. A Teaching Example.
FH Campus Wien, Austria
The requirements for sustainability in the construction industry due to the accelerating climate change, the increasing digitalisation and complexity due to the variety of building materials, techniques and tools as well as the increased number of stakeholders involved lead to changed construction processes. Decision-makers are faced with the dilemma of having to make far-reaching decisions in early phases, although only little information is available. Integral planning, i.e. the early involvement of all necessary experts in the planning team and the simultaneous participation of all disciplines and stakeholders in the planning process, is a necessary step to overcome the challenges described. This leads to a holistic approach in the planning of buildings, mutual understanding of different disciplines as well as a goal-oriented creative process and solution of complex tasks.
Nevertheless, due to habitual ways of working, the early cooperation of different actors in the building industry is difficult. During the course "Integral Planning" at the Vienna University of Applied Sciences "FH Campus Wien", students of "Architecture - Green Building" and "Civil Engineering - Construction Management" plan a multi-storey building in timber or timber hybrid construction in small groups. All real project phases (from preliminary design to detailed planning) are carried out and sustainable principles are implemented. In addition to an architectural design, the students have to work out detailed structural analysis, building physics, construction, energy and dismantling concepts. This imparts specialist and practical know-how and promotes a general rethinking of current planning and construction processes.
4:15pm - 4:30pm
BIM Based Hygrothermal Modelling of Building Constructions
Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Construction Materials and Technologies, 3. Műegyetem rkp., H-1111, Budapest, Hungary
The construction industry is currently one of the least digitised. However, due to recent technological developments, building information modelling and management (BIM) systems are increasingly being used to increase the efficiency of constructions and sustainable use of resources and increase the energy efficiency of buildings. In the case of new constructions or building renovations, properly designed hygrothermal behaviour of building materials, elements and structures are unavoidable to achieve the objectives mentioned above. Therefore, we can ensure the comfort of our users and healthy living space.
BIM is the most suitable and widespread method for digital management of building stock and related data and integration. With the possibilities offered by BIM, it is possible to integrate building physical modelling right into the architectural design process. However, with standard BIM systems, we cannot embed detailed material properties, weather, or the effects of the natural and built environment in the BIM model for heat and moisture transfer (HAM) modelling for hygrothermal performance evaluation at present. Furthermore, the data exchange process is one-way mainly and unregulated between BIM and numerical simulation tools.
In the presented paper, both a ClosedBIM and an OpenBIM based workflow are presented to bridge the gap between BIM and hygrothermal modelling of building components and constructions, that can contribute to the design of sustainable, economic and hygrothermal optimal building constructions and also could be a basis for artificial intelligence-based optimised design solutions.
4:30pm - 4:45pm
A Guideline To Support The Use of Off-site Solutions for Façade Retrofitting Through BIM-enabled Processes
Politecnico di Milano, Department of Architecture, Built Environment and Construction Engineering, Italy
As widely discussed in the literature, there is a strong need for an intense renewal process of the construction industry in order to increase quality standards and performances, while reducing costs, and time of operations. This is particularly true for the energy retrofitting, in order to increase the renovation rate of the existing European building stock and support the 2050 targets.
The introduction of prefabricated panels for building renovation – incorporating insulation, services, and finishing – can provide poor performing existing buildings with new structural, thermal, acoustical, and architectural features.
Several digital and informative tools have been introduced over the last years to design the integration of prefabricated panels on existing building envelopes (panelization tools). While it is clear that the development of these tools is increasingly in the direction of BIM, their fragmentation and different context of use (e.g. company-owned vs research-related) is evident.
For this reason, several international research projects, such as the EU-funded BIM4EEB, aim to streamline the process into the BIM environment to facilitate the decision-making process.
This paper presents a framework supporting BIM-enabled processes for retrofitting operations and shows the advantages of the early integration of data from the manufacturer. A significant reduction of production time is expected, due to the possibility of extraction of production drawings from the model and integration of assembly sequences into the site activities. This in turn can lead to a significan reduction of construction time, allowing works to be carried out in parallel on site and in the factory.
4:45pm - 5:00pm
Optimization Model of Solar Cooling System with Latent Heat Storage
Riga Technical University, Latvia
According to information provided by the International Energy Agency (IEA) energy demand for cooling is the fastest growing end-use in building sector. In recent years, interest in solar cooling systems has increased in the world and in Europe. Solar Cooling Systems are coming solutions to cover the rising demand of air-conditioning. Most of these systems are single stage absorption chillers using water as the working fluid and only a small part of them use the options of latent heat storage. Based on previous research on solar cooling systems, the possibility of using phase change materials for latent heat storage must be considered.
The paper will present a study of a solar thermal driven air-conditioning system with the integrated a latent heat storage, with the aim of stabilizing the operation of heat storage, taking into account the volatility of solar energy, the impact of short-term operations and peak hours on the amount of heat produced. This means that the amount of electricity consumed to heat up the accumulation tank will be significantly reduced. The optimization model in simulation software will be perform to test solar cooling system with latent heat energy storage, with aim to investigate the efficiency of the developed latent energy storage and provide technical guidance for the implementation of such system in the practice. All indicators, including environmental impact and economic calculations, will be identified in order to identify the specific systems for foresight market uptake.
5:00pm - 5:15pm
Exploring the State of Knowledge and Gaps Regarding Sustainability within Viennese Construction Industry
FH Campus Wien, Austria
Different approaches to assess sustainability goals are found in construction sector, mainly related to energy efficiency through building technology and high-tech components, to low-tech strategies based on passive planning methods, the use of renewable raw materials, and building certification programs, which, however, are mainly an evaluation of already built objects. Austrian construction industry is extremely fragmented and heterogeneous, making research, development and innovation an issue for companies. The core of this project is to bridge the specific gaps in knowledge within Viennese construction companies about sustainable architecture and respond to these urgent needs by developing a customized postgraduate course. Within the first phase of the project, team meetings, a workshop and an online survey were run to assess the state of knowledge of Viennese companies. By doing so, information deficits were identified, companies' need for knowledge was determined and topics to be transferred were raised.
5:15pm - 5:22pm
Moisture Drying Capacity of Mineral Wool Insulated Steel-Faced Sandwich Panels by Convection
Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia
This study analyses moisture dry-out from a steel-faced insulated sandwich panel by forced convection. Moisture convention performance was studied by laboratory tests and simulation. Two test walls with the lower parts close to the free water level were studied in a laboratory with and without convection. In addition, a real-scale wall was built to south orientate in a south-orientated direction. Measurements were also used for simulation model calibration. The hygrothermal simulations were performed with the simulation tool Delphin in stable climatic conditions to determine the magnitude of the convection moisture dry-out capacity. Comparison of the measured and simulated relative humidity showed sufficiently good agreement. The results indicate that convection significantly improves dry-out capacity, especially during summer. However, during autumn and winter their dry-out capacity was smaller. To minimise the wetting of insulation, weather protection during construction and during storage is necessary.