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The competitiveness of organizations and whole economies depends on how successfully they are able to cope with the digital transformation and new technological trends. In the area of digital work, crowdworking platforms emerged as intermediaries that support a new form of service delivery and work organization. Despite their increasing importance, there is only few data about key characteristics of such platforms such as number of employees or revenues. Furthermore, extant data often focusses only on a few platforms, mostly from the US. Based on results from a study about the 32 crowdworking platforms that have their headquarters or a physical location in Germany, we provide data that for the first time allows to draw conclusions for the “total population” of crowdworking platforms in a defined larger region (Germany as Europe’s largest and the world fourth largest economy). These results are valuable for various stakeholders from economy and politics, allowing them to make economic or political decisions on a more informed basis. Furthermore, we develop an evaluation framework that depicts the implications for these groups along the dimensions costs, flexibility, “humanity”, quality, and time: Crowdworking platforms on the one hand provide several opportunities: Individuals gain more flexibility, groups can benefit from additional contributors, organizations have the potential to process work faster and cheaper. On the other hand, this novel form of work organization also includes potential threats for all groups: Low payments and ‘tayloristic’ work, insufficient quality or irritation of internal employees. Based on 12 interviews with company representatives and crowdworkers, we evaluate implications of this novel form of work organization for society.
More Self-Organization, More Control – Or Even Both? Inverse Transparency As A New Digital Leadership Concept
Maren Gierlich, Thomas Hess, Rahild Neuburger
The rise of digital technologies leads to vast amounts of data inside companies. Moreover, they facilitate the analysis and processing of data, leading to an increase in organizational transparency. While the use of data to innovate firms’ business models or to increase processes’ efficiency have been investigated by many contributions, research on the use of employees’ data for innovative leadership is sparsely available. Traditional leadership theories fall short in explaining the influence of digitalization and increasing transparency. In a digitized world, managers often face a dilemma as they are trying to use data for management purposes. On the one hand, transparency leads to decreasing information asymmetries, allowing the manager to monitor the employees’ actions at low cost. On the other hand, employees demand for self-organization and empowerment. Thus, multiple tensions arise when leadership and transparency are combined.
With our conceptual paper, we aim to provide a solution for using transparency in leadership in a mutual beneficial and sustainable way by introducing the concept of “inverse transparency”. The concept builds on existing literature on transparency and leadership. We enhance current research on innovative leadership approaches and create a theoretical basis for further research.
The General Data Protection Regulation in Financial Services Industries: How Do Companies Approach the Implementation of the GDPR and What Can We Learn From Their Approaches?
Manuel Holler1, Benjamin Spottke2, Seth Benzell3, Matthias Ehrat1
1Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland; 2University of St.Gallen, Switzerland; 3Massachusetts Institute of Technology, United States
This research study sets out to explore the General Data Protection Regulation in financial services industries grounded on the pivotal question: “How do companies approach to General Data Protection Regulation and what can we learn from their approaches?”. Regarding the former, a three-stage iterative and risk-based implementation approach was unveiled, regarding the latter, good practices for implementation at a strategy-, organization-, management-, process-, and technology-related level were identified. Notwithstanding the inherent limitations by the applied case study research at leading companies in finance and insurance business, it can be concluded that companies strive with the utmost effort to ensure compliance with the General Data Protection Regulation, yet there exists a gap between strategy and implementation.