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Chair der Sitzung: Dietmar Harhoff, Max-Planck-Inistitut für Innovation und Wettbewerb
Ort:Virtueller Raum 1
Entrepreneurship Policy: Have We Been Asking the Wrong Question?
David B. Audretsch1, Erik E. Lehmann2, Matthias Menter3, Nikolaus Seitz2
1Indiana University Bloomington; 2Universität Augsburg; 3Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena
The effectiveness of entrepreneurship policies is discussed controversially in the literature. This paper suggests that we may have been asking the wrong question, i.e. whether innovation and entrepreneurship policies promote innovative entrepreneurship. This question implicitly assumes the existence of a singular and homogeneous outcome of entrepreneurial activities. We take a rather different perspective in asking which type of policy is more conducive to innovative entrepreneurship and under which conditions. Investigating the policy mix in Germany, our results suggest that the literature has been amiss in characterizing entrepreneurship and innovation policy as a homogeneous and singular approach. Rather this paper proposes that different types of polices will impact innovative entrepreneurship differently depending both on the particular type of policy as well as the specific policy context.
Transformational Change in Higher Education: Does the Evolution Towards Entrepreneurial Universities Influence Regional High-Technology Entrepreneurship?
The purpose of this paper is to examine whether entrepreneurial university transformational change influences high-technology entrepreneurship. While there has been a growing body of research on entrepreneurial universities, none has examined how their transformation influences regional high-technology entrepreneurship. Set in the German context, we focus on the German Excellence Initiative, a higher education policy intervention designed to foster the transformation of German universities towards an entrepreneurial paradigm. Our results reveal that universities that have adapted an entrepreneurial paradigm serve as a positive and significant element impacting regional high-technology entrepreneurship. In addition, our study highlights that especially holistic policy instruments that consider not only specific dimensions of an entrepreneurial architecture proof to be effective. However, we also find that entrepreneurship education does not seem to have a significant effect on high-technology entrepreneurship, indicating the potential lack of target group-specific education within the German university landscape. Based on our results, we conclude our paper by outlining implications for policy makers, high-technology entrepreneurs and university managers as well as present future avenues for research.
The Innovation Eﬀect of the Introduction of Universities of Applied Sciences in Germany: Interdependencies Between Diﬀerent Types of Research Institutions
Patrick Lehnert2, Curdin Pfister2, Dietmar Harhoff1, Uschi Backes-Gellner2
1Max-Planck-Inistitut für Innovation und Wettbewerb, Deutschland; 2University of Zürich
This study analyzes the innovation eﬀect of Universities of Applied Sciences (UASs) in Germany and particularly focuses on the role of interdependencies between basic and applied research institutions. We exploit variation in the location and timing of the establishment of UASs to compare the development of patents between regions with and without a UAS. To identify the role of complementarities between basic and applied research institutions, we inves- tigate whether the innovation eﬀect of a newly established UAS depends on the presence of other public research institutions within a region. To control for time-invariant regional heterogeneity, we use ﬁxed eﬀects estimation. To adjust for time-variant factors determining the locations of UASs, we use a measure of regional urban land cover from 30 years of satellite data as a proxy for regional economic activity. Our results show that the eﬀects of UASs on the number of patents and patent citations are positive and signiﬁcant only if a UAS is established in a region where other research institutions existed prior to the establishment of a UAS. This interdependency indicates a strong complementarity between UASs and other research institutions.